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Cophasing activities at Onera. Kamel Houairi Frédéric Cassaing. Cophasing at Onera. I/ Pupil-plane fringe sensing Persee Gravity II/ Focal-plane fringe sensing Phase retrieval/diversity New algorithms under study (F. Cassaing). PERSEE. Context

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cophasing activities at onera

Cophasing activities at Onera

Kamel Houairi

Frédéric Cassaing

cophasing at onera
Cophasing at Onera

I/ Pupil-plane fringe sensing

  • Persee
  • Gravity

II/ Focal-plane fringe sensing

  • Phase retrieval/diversity
  • New algorithms under study (F. Cassaing)
persee
PERSEE
  • Context
    • Nulling demonstrator for formation-flying missions (Darwin/TPF-I, Pegase, FKSI, …)
  • Main objectives
    • 10-4±10-5 achromatic nulling
      • In the [1.6-3.2] µm spectral band
      • In presence of realistic disturbances
      • For several hours
    • Validate the full operation (star/fringe acquisition, tracking, calibration, unloading of fine correctors)
consortium and sub systems

CNES

Perturbation

GEPI

IAS

LESIA

Correction

Beamcombiner

Star Sensor

OCA

ONERA

Fringe Sensor

TAS

Consortium and sub-systems

Source

Nulling detector

Laboratory

beam combination
Beam combination

M1

P1

P2

P3

M2

P4

B

A

C

D

  • Wide-band null  Modified Mach-Zehnder

Achromatic p shift

  • 4 outputs (ABCD)
    • Spectral separation after combination
    • Common fringe sensor / science instrument

Nulling [1.6-3.2] µm

Fringe tracking [0.8-1.5] µm

fringe sensor setup
Fringe sensor setup
  • Spatial modulation
    • Allow high measurement frequency (fringe acquision)
    • D measured by fringe sensor  Real Time null depth monitoring
  • Central fringe identification
    • Dispersion is the simplest way
    • Minimize detector noise  2 spectral channels are enough

Simultaneous ABCD in I & J  2 phases, 2 visibilities

operating modes and free parameter optimization
Operating modes and free parameter optimization

Estimator noises depend on ls

Dispersion: I = [0.8-ls]µm -- J = [ls-1.5]µm  Optimal ls ?

slide8

Phase delay

d

d=100 nm

d=20 nm

d

d=0 nm

ls = 1 µm, sensitive

ls = 1 µm, p=0.5, not sensitive

Separation wavelength optimization

Wide spectral band  Measurement noise = f(d)

Estimated OPD measurement noise vs ls (photon noise)

Group delay

final cophasing piston tip tilt design
Final cophasing (piston/tip/tilt) design

- RT computer

- 8 monopixel detectors

Correction

Spectral dispersion

cophasing design at onera autocollimation
Cophasing design at Onera(autocollimation)

- RT computer

- 8 monopixel detectors

Correction

+

Perturbation

Injection bloc:spectral dispersion

One output is used for the light injection

preliminary cophasing implementation at onera
Preliminary cophasing implementation at Onera

Backwards light injectionDetectionAlignment

calibration

Intensity

arm 1

Intensity

arm 2

Dark

Phase shift ≈ p/2

Calibration
  • Analytical equations of the spatial interferometer
    • Linear system  OPD = f-1(measurement)
  • Need a calibration process
new extended coherencing algorithm experimental results
New extended coherencing algorithm (experimental results)
  • Estimated OPD is l-periodic  twolambda analysis to extend the unambiguous range
  • Classical algorithms are L periodic
  • Estimation of the synthetic wavelength fringe order by a new (real time) agorithm

Extension of the OPD estimation range by a factor of 5

To do: Extension for N>2 spectral channels (PRIMA DATA)

results of the fringe tracking
Results of the fringe tracking
  • Only laboratory disturbances, sampling = 150Hz

Closed loop

Open loop

OPD PSD

Open loop

Closed loop

Open loop

Closed loop

  • Open loop: sopd = 4.5 nm rms
  • Closed loop: sopd = 1.3 nm rms

 nanometric residual reached

gravity
Gravity
  • 2nd generation VLTI instrument
  • Instrument design:
    • 4 UTs
    • AO correction
    • Fringe tracking
  • Fringe tracking residual OPD < l/10
gravity 4 beam combination

1/3:1 Splitting ratio

One OPD measurement

What is the best combination ? How to choose ?

Systematic procedure derived, based on noise propagation minimization

GRAVITY: 4 beam combination
  • 4 telescopes to combine
    • 3 independent OPDs to control
    • Hyp.: pairwise based combination  6 baselines
  • Several possibilities to combine the beams
gravity fs simulation

l/10

Gravity FS simulation
  • Selected Fringe Sensor:
    • S6
  • Control law:
    • Integrator model based
  • Atmospheric OPD spectrum
    • R0=0.95m @ 2.2µm
    • t0=47ms @ 2.2µm
    • Total variance: 23 µm rms
  • Dispersion: 5 spectral channels (coherencing + science measurements with fringe sensor)

Specification (l/10) reached with loop frequency fs = 400 Hz

onera s perspectives for pupil plane fs
Onera’s Perspectives for pupil-plane FS
  • Persée :
    • Complete Persee installation and qualification
    • Operate cophasing and nulling systems in parallel
    • New PhD student for advanced control techniques
  • Gravity
    • Refined simulation underway (Phase B)
    • New PhD student fall 2009 (Lesia-Onera)
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