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Apostrophe and Hyphen. Apostrophe. Three uses of the apostrophe: To show possession (ownership) To show plural forms To show where letters or numbers have been omitted. Apostrophe - Possession. Singular nouns Nouns not ending in s , add an apostrophe and s. bone of the dog = dog’s bone

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apostrophe
Apostrophe
  • Three uses of the apostrophe:
    • To show possession (ownership)
    • To show plural forms
    • To show where letters or numbers have been omitted
apostrophe possession
Apostrophe - Possession
  • Singular nouns
    • Nouns not ending in s, add an apostrophe and s.
      • bone of the dog = dog’s bone
      • laptop of the student = student’s laptop
    • Nouns ending in s, add and apostrophe and s.
      • toy of James = James’s toy
      • appointment of the boss = boss’s appointment
    • Noun of more than one syllable, add apostrophe alone.
      • testimony of the witness = witness’ testimony
      • staff of Moses = Moses’ staff
apostrophe possession1
Apostrophe - Possession
  • Plural Nouns
    • Nouns ending in s, add apostrophe
      • battle plans of the armies = armies’ battle plans
      • notes of the reporters = reporters’ notes
    • Nouns not ending is s, add apostrophe and s
      • clothing of the men = men’s clothing
      • toys of the children = children’s toys
    • Possessive personal pronouns (his, hers, theirs, ours, yours)and relative pronoun (whose) do not require an apostrophe.
apostrophe possession2
Apostrophe - Possession
  • Possessive personal pronouns (his, hers, theirs, ours, yours)and relative pronoun (whose) do not require an apostrophe.
    • This sandwich is yours. The pizza is theirs.
    • Whose books did you borrow?
  • Indefinite Pronouns (one, everyone, everybody, someone, somebody, etc.) require an apostrophe and s.
    • This job is somebody’s responsibility.
    • One’s college decision is an important one.
apostrophe possession3
Apostrophe - Possession
  • Hyphenated words, names of organization, business firms, words showing joint possession – add apostrophe and s to last word
    • sister-in-law’s recipe
    • American Cancer Society’s telethon
    • Ben and Jerry’s ice cream
    • Tim and Tom’s dog
apostrophe possession4
Apostrophe - Possession
  • When two or more persons possess something individually, add an apostrophe and s to both names
    • Joe’s and Steve’s paper routes
    • buyer’s and seller’s signatures
  • Words like minute, hour, day, week, month, year, etc. and words that indicate amounts in cents or dollars used as possessive adjectives require apostrophes.
    • week’s delays, four weeks’ delay
    • one cent’s worth, ten cents’ worth
    • one dollar’s worth, five dollars’ worth
apostrophe plural forms
Apostrophe – Plural Forms
  • Use apostrophe and s to form the plural of numbers, letters, and signs, and of words referred to as words
hyphen
Hyphen
  • Two functions
    • To divide words at the end of a line
    • To form compounds
hyphen dividing words
Hyphen – dividing words
  • Use hyphen to divide a word at the end of a written or typed line. A word must always be divided between syllables.
    • Wrong: When he spoke to me , it was obv-

ious that he didn’t recognize me.

Right: When he spoke to me, it was ob-

vious that he didn’t recognize me.

hyphens forming compounds
Hyphens - forming compounds
  • Use a hyphen with compound numbers from twenty-one to ninety-nine and with fractions used as adjectives.
    • Fine hundred and forty-five
    • Three-quarters-length stockings
    • A two-thirds majority
    • ( two thirds of the voters – two modifying thirds)
hyphens forming compounds1
Hyphens -- forming compounds
  • Use hyphens with prefixes ex-, self-, all-, and with suffix –elect, and with all prefixes before a proper noun or proper adjective
    • ex-champion mid-September
    • self-confidence trans-Canadian
    • mayor-elect pre-Renaissance
hyphens forming compounds2
Hyphens -- forming compounds
  • Hyphenate a compound adjective when it precedes the word it modifies (two words become a single modifier)
    • the well-known actor (The actor is well known.)
    • the soft-spoken woman (The woman is soft spoken.)
    • a best-selling novel (The novel is best selling.)
hyphens forming compounds3
Hyphens -- forming compounds
  • Use hyphen to prevent confusion or awkwardness.

semi-invalid rather than semiinvalid

co-operation rather than cooperation

re-form a line rather than reform a line

re-mark the papers rather than remark the papers

sources
Sources

Hairston, Maxine and John J. Ruszkiewicz. The Scott Foresman Handbook for Writers.Scott, Foresman and Company: Glenview. 1988. Print

Rozakis, Laurie E., Ph.D. The Complete Idiot’s Guide to Grammar and Style. Second Edition. USA: Alpha. 2003. Print

Warriner, John. Warriner’s English Grammar and Composition: Fifth Course. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, Inc. 1982. Print.

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