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Introduction to C# Programming. ณภัทร สักทอง 1204452 Application Program Development. Outline. 2. Programming Languages C# Language Overview. Programming Languages. Programming Languages. 3. Program

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introduction to c programming

Introduction to C# Programming

ณภัทร สักทอง

1204452 Application Program Development

outline
Outline

2

  • Programming Languages
  • C# Language Overview
programming languages

Programming Languages

Programming Languages

3

  • Program
    • A set of instructions for a computer to follow, written in specific programming language
  • Types of programming language
    • High-Level Language
    • Assembly Language
    • Machine Language
high level vs assembly vs machine language

Programming Languages

High-level VS Assembly VS Machine Language

4

  • High-level Language
    • Nearly like human word
    • SUM := A * 2 + ALPHA/3;
  • Assembly Language
    • Some key words are understandable
  • MULL3A, #2, R
  • ADDL3R6, R7, SUM
  • Machine Language
    • Only “0” and “1”
  • 00011000011
  • 00011001111
  • 10011000111

Computer itself understands only Machine language

language translator

High-level language

  • static void Main( ){ Console.WriteLine("Hello World!");}
  • Assembly language
  • pushl %ebpmovl %esp, %ebpsubl $8, %espandl $-16, %esp

Programming Languages

  • Machine language
  • 000110001100011100011000111010111100011000110001110
Language translator

5

Interpreter

/ Compiler

Assembler

Machine

Hello World!

_

high level languages

Programming Languages

High-Level Languages

6

  • Functional Language
  • Lisp
  • Logic Language
  • Prolog
  • Procedural Language
    • Fortran
    • Cobol
    • Basic
    • C
    • Pascal
  • Object-Oriented Language
    • C++
    • Java
    • C#
outline1
Outline

7

  • Programming Languages
  • C# Language Overview
a simple c program1

C# Language Overview

A simple C# Program

9

Statement ending with semicolon “;”

a simple c program2

C# Language Overview

A simple C# Program

10

C# syntax is case-sensitive

namespace

NAMEspace

Main()

main()

a simple c program3

C# Language Overview

A simple C# Program

11

White space means nothing

static void Main(string[] args) {

Console.WriteLine("Hello World!");

}

static void Main(string[] args){

Console.WriteLine("Hello World!");}

a simple c program4

C# Language Overview

A simple C# Program

12

Anything between /* */ or after // is considered a comment

Comments will not be translated

static void Main(string[] args) //comment here {

/* This is comment too. */

Console.WriteLine("Hello World!");

}

program structure

C# Language Overview

Program Structure

13

  • The starting point of the program is:
  • This is known as the method Main
  • A method is put inside a class
  • A class may be put inside a namespace

static void Main ()

{

... starting point ... }

program structure1

C# Language Overview

Class

Class

namespace

Program Structure

14

  • In C#
    • A program can contain several namespaces
    • A namespace can contain several classes
    • A class can contain several methods
  • In other words
    • Think of a namespace as a container of classes
    • Think of a class as a container of methods

method1

method2

program structure2

C# Language Overview

Program Structure

15

  • For this 1204452 course
    • Program with only one class and at most one namespace
  • For now until sometime before midterm
    • Program with one method (i.e., Main)

namespace HelloW {

class HelloWClass {

static void Main () {

System.Console.WriteLine("Hello World!");

System.Console.ReadLine();

}

}

}

naming rules

C# Language Overview

Naming Rules

16

  • Letters, digits and underscores(_)
  • First character letter or _
  • Up to 63 characters long
  • Must not be a reserved word

* Case Sensitive Example

MSU53 ≠ msU53 ≠msu53

naming rules1

C# Language Overview

Naming Rules

17

  • Letters, digits and underscores(_)
  • First character letter or _
  • Up to 63 characters long
  • Must not be a reserved word

Example

name

Name

point9

9point

_data

class

class_A

class_”A”

outline2
Outline

22

  • C# Beginning
  • Variable and Constant
  • Expression
  • Statement
  • Modify-And-Assign
  • Math Class
c beginning

C# Beginning

C# Beginning

23

  • The starting point of the program is:
  • This is known as the method Main
  • A method is put inside a class
  • A class may be put inside a namespace

static void Main ()

{

... starting point ... }

inside method main

C# Beginning

Inside method Main

24

  • Variable declarations
  • Statements

static void Main(string[] args)

{

const double pi = 3.1416;

int radius;

double area;

radius = int.Parse(Console.ReadLine());

area = pi*radius*radius;

Console.WriteLine(area);

}

outline3
Outline

25

  • C# Beginning
  • Variable and Constant
  • Expression
  • Statement
  • Modify-And-Assign
  • Math Class
what is variable

Variable & Constant

What is Variable?

26

  • A variable is used to store “data.”

“It must be declared before used”

c variable declaration

Variable & Constant

C# Variable Declaration

28

  • Syntax:
      • <datatype> <name>;
  • Example:
  • We can also assign its initial value. Example:

int radius;

double area;

bool isokay;

int k = 200;

bool done = false;

c variable declaration1
C# Variable Declaration

29

  • Syntax:
    • <datatype> <name_1>, <name_2>,..., <name_n>;
  • Example:
  • We can also assign its initial value. Example:

int width, length, height;

double mean, sd, max, min;

bool isokay, isright, check;

int width=5, length, height=4;

test i variable declaration
Test I - Variable Declaration

30

  • Declare variable3,4,5
  • Name3 : u
  • Name4 : tName5 : a
  • Type : double
  • Initial value3 : 5.0
  • Initial value4 : nothing
  • Initial value5 : 9.8
  • Declare variable1
    • Name : num_Student
    • Type : interger
    • Initial value : nothing
  • Declare variable2
    • Name : gender
    • Type : character
    • Initial value : m
c constant declaration

Variable & Constant

C# Constant Declaration

31

  • Syntax:
      • const <datatype> <name> = <value>;
  • Example:

const int radius = 15;

const double area=1.5;

const bool isokay=true;

const string movie=”StarWarIII”;

const char mckazine=‘m’;

c constant declaration1

Variable & Constant

C# Constant Declaration

32

  • Syntax:
      • const <datatype> <name_1> = <value_1>, <name_2> = <value_2>, ... , <name_n> = <value_n>;
  • Example:

const int radius = 15, height = 5;

const double area=1.5, wide=3.2, lenght = 4.1;

test ii constant declaration
Test II - Constant Declaration

33

  • Declare Constant
    • Name : e
    • Type : double
    • Initial value : 2.71828
outline4
Outline

34

  • C# Beginning
  • Variable and Constant
  • Expression
  • Statement
  • Modify-And-Assign
  • Math Class
c expression

Expression

Expression

Arithmetic Expression

Boolean Expression

C# Expression

35

arithmetic expression

Expression

Arithmetic Expression

36

  • Operators
    • + - * /
    • % (remainder after division)
  • Example
    • 11 + 5 
    • 39 / 5 
    • 39.0/5 
    • 39 % 5 
    • 5.0 % 2.2 

16

7

7.8

4

0.6

piority of arithmetic operators

Expression

Piority of Arithmetic Operators

37

Answer

int a, b;

a = 2-10*3/5+(6%4);

b = 5*(15%4+(2-3))/9;

a = -2

b = 1

calculation priority

Expression

Calculation Priority

38

static void Main(){

int a,b,c,d;

double e,f,g;

a=2; b=7; c=5;

d=c/a;

e=5/b;

f=5.0/2;

g=5/2.0;

}

Answer

d = 2

e = 0

f = 2.5

g = 2.5

boolean expression

Expression

Boolean Expression

39

  • Operators
    • Comparison
      • Equal ==
      • Not equal !=
      • Less <
      • Greater >
      • Less than or equal to <=
      • Greater than or equal to >=
    • Boolean
      • And &&
      • Or ||
      • Not!

0 and 0 = 0

0 and 1 = 0

1 and 0 = 0

1 and 1 = 1

0 or 0 = 0

0 or 1 = 1

1 or 0 = 1

1 or 1 = 1

not 0 = 1

not 1 = 0

example boolean expression

Expression

Example: Boolean Expression

40

  • 10 > 50 
  • ’A’ < ’B’ 
  • (3<2) || (2+5 > 6) 
  • (’a’ != ’z’) && !(9==0) 

false

true

true

true

outline5
Outline

41

  • C# Beginning
  • Variable and Constant
  • Expression
  • Statement
  • Modify-And-Assign
  • Math Class
statements

Statement

Statement#1

Statement#2

Statements

42

  • A statement is a unit of command to instruct your program
  • A method consists of one or more statements

class Hello {

static void Main () {

Console.WriteLine("Hello World!");

Console.ReadLine();

}

}

c statement types

C# Statement Types

Statement

Assignment Statement

Input Statement

Output Statement

C# Statement Types

43

assignment statement

Statement

Assignment Statement

44

  • Assigning value to variable
  • Use the equal sign (=) when making assignments.
  • Syntax:
    • <variable> = <expression>;

int Width,High;

Width=10;

High=20+Width;

input statement

Statement

Input Statement

45

  • Console.ReadLine() Return string
    • Use to get the input from user
  • Convert string to other data type
    • int.Parse()
    • Convert string to integer
    • double.Parse()
    • Convert string to double

Example

string st;

st = Console.ReadLine();

example input statement

Statement

Example: Input Statement

46

  • Ex1:
  • string myname;
  • myname = Console.ReadLine();

Ex2:

int Width;

string temp1;

temp1 = Console.ReadLine();

Width = int.Parse(temp1);

output statements

Statement

Output Statements

47

  • Use the method Write or WriteLine in the Console class (which is in System namespace)
  • Basic usage:
  • Advanced usage:
  • Even more advanced usage:

Console.WriteLine("Hello");

Console.WriteLine(area);

Console.WriteLine(”Size {0}x{1}”, width, height);

double salary=12000;

Console.WriteLine("My salary is {0:f2}.", salary);

outline6
Outline

48

  • C# Beginning
  • Variable and Constant
  • Expression
  • Statement
  • Math Class
test iii
Test III

50

  • Write the program which
    • Input : Your name
    • Output : Your name is <your name>.
test iv
Test IV

51

  • Write the program which
    • Input : 3 number
    • Output : average of 3 input number
test vi
Test VI

52

  • Write the program which
    • Input : lenght of radius of circle
    • Output : Area of circle
outline7
Outline

*

  • Boolean expression
  • if statement
  • nested if statement
  • Flowchart
boolean expression1

Boolean Expression

Boolean Expression

*

  • Operators
    • Comparison
      • Equal ==
      • Not equal !=
      • Less <
      • Greater >
      • Less than or equal to <=
      • Greater than or equal to >=
  • Boolean
    • And &&
    • Or ||
    • Not !

0 and 0 = 0

0 and 1 = 0

1 and 0 = 0

1 and 1 = 1

0 or 0 = 0

0 or 1 = 1

1 or 0 = 1

1 or 1 = 1

not 0 = 1

not 1 = 0

boolean expression example

Boolean Expression

Boolean Expression Example

*

  • From the equation: X2+9X+10 = 0
    • How can we check that value of X is the answer for above equation?
  • Condition: Is value Y even number?

((X*X +9*X +10) == 0) //true if X is the answer

(Y%2 == 0) //true if Y is even

OR

(Y%2 != 1) //true if Y is even

example boolean expressions

Boolean Expression

Example: Boolean Expressions

*

  • double x = 4.0;
  • Expression Value
  • x < 5.0 ___________
  • x > 5.0 ___________
  • x <= 5.0 ___________
  • 5.0 == x ___________
  • x != 5.0 ___________
  • (3!=4)&&(7<5) ___________
  • (4>4)||(5<=10) ___________

true

false

true

false

true

false

true

outline8
Outline

*

  • Boolean expression
  • if statement
  • nested if statement
  • switch case statement
  • Flowchart
if statement
if statement

*

ที่มาของภาพ http://www.ryt9.com/s/prg/774090

10

if statement1

if statement

if statement

*

  • Execute the specific statement when the ”condition” becomes true
  • Syntax:

true

true

if (condition) {

statement1;

statement2;

}

if (condition) {

statement;

}

if statement2

if statement

if statement

*

  • Execute the specific statement when the ”condition” becomes true
  • Syntax:

true

if (condition)

statement;

if (condition) {

statement1;

statement2;

}

true

if (condition){

statement;

}

if statement3

if statement

if statement

condition

False

*

True

Statement

if (condition){

statement;

}

if statement4

if statement

if statement

condition

False

*

True

if (condition)

statement;

Statement

if (condition){

statement;

}

if statement5

if statement

if statement

condition

*

True

False

if (condition){

statement1;

statement2;

}

Statement1

Statement2

if statement6
if statement

*

  • price = 40;
  • if (height <= 140) {
  • Console.WriteLine (“Hello Children!”);
  • price = 0;
  • }
  • Console.WriteLine(“price ={0}”,price);

price = 40;

height<=140

false

true

Console.WriteLine(“Hello children”);

price = 0;

Console.WriteLine(“price = {0}”, price)

12

slide66
การควบคุมการไหลของโปรแกรมการควบคุมการไหลของโปรแกรม
  • โปรแกรมทั่วไปจะทำงานเป็นเส้นตรง

x = int.Parse(Console.ReadLine());

y = int.Parse(Console.ReadLine());

Console.WriteLine(x+y)

Console.WriteLine("Hello {0}",x)

z = x * y + 10;

Console.WriteLine(z)

14

slide67
การควบคุมการไหลของโปรแกรมการควบคุมการไหลของโปรแกรม
  • โปรแกรมที่ใช้คำสั่ง if

height <= 140

True

False

price = 40;

if (height <= 140) {

Console.WriteLine("Hello kids!");

price = 0;

}

Console.WriteLine("price={0}",price);

เมื่อ height = 120

เมื่อ height = 160

15

if else statements
if – else statements

ที่มาของภาพ http://splinedoctors.com/2009/02/hurry-up-and-choose/

25

if else
คำสั่ง if-else
  • คำสั่ง if
  • คำสั่ง if-else

26

if else statement

if statement

if…else… statement

*

  • If condition is true→ execute statement1
  • If condition isfalse→ execute statement2
  • Syntax:

if (condition)

statement1; //true

else

statement2; //false

if (condition)

statement1; //true

else{

statement2; //false

statement3; //false

}

if else statement1

if statement

if…else… statement

condition

False

True

*

Statement2

Statement1

if (condition) {

statement1; //true

}else {

statement2; //false

}

if else statement2

if statement

if…else… statement

condition

False

True

*

Statement2

Statement1

Statement3

if (condition){

statement1; //true

} else{

statement2; //false

statement3; //false

}

if else statement example

if statement

if…else… statement example

*

  • Write the program which check input number.
    • input : integer number
    • output : message to inform that number is odd or even.
if else statement example1

if statement

if…else… statement example

*

if(n%2 == 0) {

Console.WriteLine(“It’s even number”);

} else {

Console.WriteLine(“It’s odd number”);

}

slide75
การควบคุมการไหลของโปรแกรมการควบคุมการไหลของโปรแกรม

Console.WriteLine("It is an even number");

n % 2 == 0

True

False

Console.WriteLine("It is an odd number");

30

test i

if statement

Test I

*

  • Write the program which decide result of the examination from student’s score
    • input : number
    • output :
test ii

if statement

Test II

*

  • Write the program which find the value of function
    • input : number
    • output :
thinking corner
Thinking corner

*

  • Write the program which decide type of integer input - positive, zero or negative integer.

x > 0

x == 0

x < 0

outline9
Outline

*

  • Boolean expression
  • if statement
  • nested if statement
  • switch case statement
  • FlowChart
slide80
มุมนักคิด

x > 0

x > 0

True

x < 0

x < 0

True

False

x == 0

False

34

nested if statement

Nested if statement

Nested if statement

*

int N;

N = int.Parse(Console.ReadLine());

if (N > 0) {

Console.WriteLine(“N is positive number”);

else

if (N==0)

Console.WriteLine(“N is zero number”);

else

Console.WriteLine(“N is negative number”);

if#1

if#2

nested if statement1

Nested if statement

Nested if statement

*

int N;

N = int.Parse(Console.ReadLine());

if (N >= 0)

{

if (N==0)

Console.WriteLine(“N is zero number”);

else

Console.WriteLine(“N is positive number”);

}

else

Console.WriteLine(“N is negative number”);

if#1

if#2

exercise 1 separated if simple
Exercise 1: Separated IF (simple)

*

1. Have you eaten lunch?

2. Do you like noodle?

  • if (eaten==true)
  • {Console.WriteLine(“ I’ve already eaten”);}
  • else
  • {Console.WriteLine(“ I’ve not eat yet”);}
  • if (like_noodle==true)
  • {Console.WriteLine(“I like noodle”);}
  • else
  • {Console.WriteLine(“I don’t like noodle”);}
exercise 2 related two if full version
Exercise 2: Related two IF (full version)

*

1. Do you like noodle?

2. If you don’t like noodle, do you like fried rice?

  • if (like_noodle==true)
  • {Console.WriteLine(“I like noodle”);}
  • else
  • { Console.WriteLine(“I don’t like noodle”);
  • if (like_friedrice==true)
  • {Console.WriteLine(“I like friedrice”);}
  • else
  • {Console.WriteLine(“I don’t like friedrice”);}
  • }
exercise 2 related two if short version
Exercise 2: Related two IF (short version)

*

  • if (like_noodle==true)
  • {Console.WriteLine(“I like noodle”);}
  • else if (like_friedrice==true)
  • {Console.WriteLine(“I like friedrice”);}
  • else
  • {Console.WriteLine(“I don’t like friedrice”);}

1. Do you like noodle?

2. If you don’t like noodle, do you like fried rice?

exercise 3 nested two if short version
Exercise 3: Nested two IF (short version)

*

1. Do you like noodle?

1.1 If you like noodle, do you love Sen-Yai?

1.2 If you don’t like noodle, do you like fried rice?

  • if (like_noodle==true)
  • {Console.WriteLine(“I like noodle”);
  • if (love_SenYai==true)
  • {Console.WriteLine(“I love Sen-Yai”);}
  • else
  • {Console.WriteLine(“I don’t love Sen-Yai”);}
  • }
  • else if (like_friedrice==true)
  • {Console.WriteLine(“I like fried rice”);}
  • else
  • {Console.WriteLine(“I don’t like fried rice”);}
nested if statement example

Nested if statement

Nested if statement example

*

  • Write the program which show student’s grade
    • input : score of student
    • output :
test iii1
Test III

Recieving

if statement

Selfish Ratio =

Giving

  • Selfish Ratio
test iii2

2x+10, x ≤ 5

Nested if statement

Test III

f(x) =

x2+10, 5 < x ≤ 20

x3+10, x > 20

*

  • Write the program which calculation value of following function
    • input : value of x
    • output : function value of x according with ...
outline10
Outline

*

  • Boolean expression
  • if statement
  • nested if statement
  • Flowchart
flowchart symbols overview

Flowchart

Flowchart Symbols Overview

*

  • Graphical representation

Terminator

Process

Input/output

Condition

Connector

Flow line

program flowchart example

Flowchart

Start

End

Program Flowchart Example

*

Statement1

Statement2

Statement3

Statement4

if statement flowchart

Flowchart

Start

End

Condition

if statement flowchart

*

statement1;

if (condition)

statement2; //true

else{

statement3; //false

}

statement4;

Statement1

true

false

Statement2

Statement3

Statement4

if statement flowchart1

Console.Write(“Go”);

Start

End

n=int.Parse(Console.ReadLine());

n>0

if statement flowchart

*

n= int.Parse(Console.ReadLine());

if (n>0)

n= 2*n+5;

else{

Console.Write(“Go”);

n = n%4;

}

false

true

n=2*n+5;

n=n%4;

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