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Fisheries and Oceans Canada. Pêches et Océans Canada. Canada. Ecosystem Variability in NAFO Waters Adjacent to the Newfoundland and Labrador Shelf during the Decade of 2000-2009. By E. Colbourne, P. Pepin and G. Maillet Fisheries and Oceans Canada. OUTLINE. Introduction

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By e colbourne p pepin and g maillet fisheries and oceans canada

Fisheries and Oceans

Canada

Pêches et Océans

Canada

Canada

Ecosystem Variability in NAFO Waters Adjacent to the Newfoundland and Labrador Shelf during the Decade of 2000-2009

By

E. Colbourne, P. Pepin and G. Maillet

Fisheries and Oceans Canada


By e colbourne p pepin and g maillet fisheries and oceans canada

OUTLINE

  • Introduction

  • Decadal Scale Variability in Meteorological and Oceanographic Climate (1950-2009)

  • Intra-Decadal Variability in the Physical, Biological and Chemical Environment (2000-2009)

  • Summary


By e colbourne p pepin and g maillet fisheries and oceans canada

The Study Area/ Observations

  • ICNAF 1949-1979

  • NAFO 1979-Present

  • Focused on Physical Observations

  • Canadian Atlantic Zone Monitoring Program (AZMP)

  • 1999-Present


By e colbourne p pepin and g maillet fisheries and oceans canada

Groundfish surveys - Selected stations

Atlantic Zone Monitoring Program (AZMP)- a joint initiative of 5 DFO labs- Physical, Biological and Chemical Observations

Sections – Spring Summer and fall

Fixed stations – Every two weeks

Remote Sensing -

Bi-weekly composites

Continuous Plankton Recorder (CPR)


By e colbourne p pepin and g maillet fisheries and oceans canada

OUTLINE

  • Introduction

  • Decadal Scale Variability in Meteorological and Oceanographic Climate (1950-2009)

  • Intra-Decadal Variability in the Physical, Biological and Chemical Environment (2000-2009)

  • Summary


By e colbourne p pepin and g maillet fisheries and oceans canada

NWA AIR TEMPERATURES

NAO

AIR

TEMP

  • Highest on record during 2000s

  • Highest variability during the 1970-1990s

SST


By e colbourne p pepin and g maillet fisheries and oceans canada

NL SHELF SEA ICE EXTENT

Sea-Ice

Lowest Since 1960s

  • Sea-Ice Lowest Since 1960s

  • Highly variable during 1970-1990s


By e colbourne p pepin and g maillet fisheries and oceans canada

NL SHELF TEMPERATURES

STATION 27

  • Record High Temp in 2000s

  • Salinity Record Low in 1990s

Record High in 2000s


By e colbourne p pepin and g maillet fisheries and oceans canada

STANDARD SECTIONS CIL

Low Variability in 2000s, 1950S


By e colbourne p pepin and g maillet fisheries and oceans canada

LABRADOR CURRENT GEOSTROPHIC TRANSPORT

  • Geostrophic Transport of Labrador Current above average in 2000s.


By e colbourne p pepin and g maillet fisheries and oceans canada

1970s

1980s

1990s

1960s

2000s

1950s

COMPOSITE CLIMATE INDEX

  • Standardized Anomalies of 27 Meteorological, Sea Ice, Temperature, Salinity Time Series

(Xi-Xmean)/σ (1971-2000)


By e colbourne p pepin and g maillet fisheries and oceans canada

COMPOSITE CLIMATE INDEX

SALINITY


By e colbourne p pepin and g maillet fisheries and oceans canada

RECAP DECADAL TRENDS

  • The 1970s, 1980s and 1990s experienced extreme intra-decadal variability with cold/warm, fresh/saline conditions.

  • The 1990s experienced the most extreme variability and was the coldest and freshest in the 6 decades of observations.

  • The decade of 2000s was the warmest decade in over 60 years of ocean measurements but very similar to 1960s.

  • The 2000s showed among the least variability reflecting a continuing warming trend throughout the region.


By e colbourne p pepin and g maillet fisheries and oceans canada

OUTLINE

  • Introduction

  • Decadal Scale Variability in Meteorological and Oceanographic Climate (1950-2009)

  • Intra-Decadal Variability in the Physical, Biological and Chemical Environment (2000-2009)

  • Summary


By e colbourne p pepin and g maillet fisheries and oceans canada

STATION 27 – Zooplankton Biomass

  • Biomass highly variable, record low in 2008 to near-record high in 2009.

  • High levels of abundance of large and small copepods in 2009Microcalanus sp., Oithona sp., Pseudocalanus sp. and Oncaea sp.

  • Warm water species Acartia sp., Centropages sp., and Temora longicornis were at low levels of abundance.


By e colbourne p pepin and g maillet fisheries and oceans canada

Standard Sections (NL) Zooplankton Abundance

  • Both small and large copepods demonstrated similar patterns of variation.

  • Lowest abundances at the start of the time-series, with a gradual increase to a peak between 2004-2006.

  • After 2006, copepods were about average for the AZMP period.

  • Other groups carnivores, omnivores and non-copepod secondary producers (meroplankton) exhibited similar patterns.


By e colbourne p pepin and g maillet fisheries and oceans canada

SALINITY

Environmental Forcing and Biogeochemical State

  • During the 12 years of AZMP observations, the physical environment was characterized by warm saline conditions.

  • Low intra-decadal variability, reflecting the warming trend throughout the region.


By e colbourne p pepin and g maillet fisheries and oceans canada

PHYTOPLANKTON

NITRATE (0-50 M)

Environmental Forcing and Biogeochemical State

Standard Sections

Station 27

  • Most correlations were weak and not consistent across the region.

  • Phytoplankton at S27 demonstrated consistent negative correlations with most climate indices.

  • In general, nutrient and phytoplankton had a significantly greater proportion of negative correlations than expected by chance (85/130).

Correlation coefficients of environmental variables with biochemical indices


By e colbourne p pepin and g maillet fisheries and oceans canada

Environmental Forcing and Biogeochemical State

27 Zooplankton Taxa (Standard Sections)

  • No single environmental variable demonstrated a consistent pattern of correlations with the 27 zooplankton taxa.

  • And no single zooplankton taxa demonstrated a consistent pattern of correlation with any environmental index.

  • 59% of the 3080 correlations were positive, which is a significant departure from random.

Box-whisker plots of the distribution of Pearson’s correlation coefficient of each index of physical environmental variables (y-axis) with all indices of zooplankton abundance (27 taxonomic groups) from each of the four oceanographic sections.


By e colbourne p pepin and g maillet fisheries and oceans canada

NUTRIENTS

PHYTOPLANKTON

ZOOPLANKTON

AZMP BIOGEOCHEMICAL COMPOSITE (2000-2009)

(Xi-Xmean)/σ (Referenced 1999-2010)


By e colbourne p pepin and g maillet fisheries and oceans canada

Environmental Forcing and Biogeochemical State

  • The decade of 2000s was characterized by warm climate conditions.

  • The biochemical state exhibited a high degree of inter-annual variability during this period.


By e colbourne p pepin and g maillet fisheries and oceans canada

BIOCHEMICAL SUMMARY 2000s

  • Nutrient were weakly correlated (-ive) with the physical environment.

  • Phytoplankton at Station 27 was significantly correlated (-ive) with the physical environment.

  • Some zooplankton taxa varied by 2-orders of magnitude with a general tendency towards +ive correlations with the physical environment.

  • No single environmental index provides strong predictive capacity of the biochemical state.

  • Environmental conditions have not varied sufficiently during AZMP to allow an accurate assessment of the full response of ecosystem productivity to changes in physical drivers of the system.


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