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Chapter 12. Digestion. The Start of Digestion. The Mouth  Food enters here The Teeth  mechanically breaks down food The Tongue  Chemically recognizes food. Moves food around the mouth. Assists in swallowing

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Chapter 12

Chapter 12

Digestion


The start of digestion
The Start of Digestion

  • The Mouth Food enters here

  • The Teeth  mechanically breaks down food

  • The Tongue  Chemically recognizes food. Moves food around the mouth. Assists in swallowing

  • Salivary Glands  Releases Saliva into the mouth. Saliva starts chemical breakdown and moistens food for swallowing.


  • The Pharynx The area in the very back of the mouth that receives air from the nasal cavities (air from the nose) and food from the mouth.

  • Esophagus  The food tube. The tube that goes from the mouth to the stomach. Many muscles surround this tube to help swallow. When muscles work to swallow its called Peristalsis

  • Trachea  Tube that goes down to the lungs to breath. This has cartridge rings so it is always open.

  • Epiglottis  covers the Trachea when swallowing so food does not go down into the lungs.


Nasal Cavity

Pharynx

Teeth

Mouth Cavity


During swallowing the Trachea moves up and forces the Epiglottis to close over the trachea’s opening


Swallowing
Swallowing Epiglottis to close over the trachea’s opening

  • Step 1: food is chewed in the mouth. Saliva is added for lubrication. Saliva also contains the digestive enzyme Salivary amylase. This enzyme breaks down starches into disaccharides like maltose

  • Step 2: Food is turned into a Bolus ( a ball of food) and pushed back of mouth by tongue.

  • Step 3: Muscles move the bolus down the esophagus. This is called peristalsis. The trachea moves up and the epiglottis closes access to the trachea. A muscle in the pharynx closes access to the nasal cavity


Nasal Cavity Epiglottis to close over the trachea’s opening

Pharynx

Epiglottis

Trachea

Esophagus


Bolus Epiglottis to close over the trachea’s opening

Trachea


Into the stomach
Into the Stomach Epiglottis to close over the trachea’s opening

  • The bolus moves down the esophagus and into the stomach.

  • The cardiac sphincter prevents the food from going from the stomach back up the esophagus.

  • A sphincter is a muscle that goes around a tube to act as a valve.

  • The cardiac sphincter is located at the joining of the stomach and the esophagus


  • The stomach has many gastric glands the release gastric juices into the stomach

  • Gastric Juice Contains:

    • Pepsin  enzyme breaks proteins to peptides

    • HCl acid  the acid kills some bacteria, activates pepsin, and breaks up food (but does not digest)

    • Mucus  slime that covers your stomach wall to protect it against the acid

  • Muscles around the stomach help mix the food with the gastric juices


a juices into the stomach

Cardiac Sphincter


Into the small intestine
Into the Small Intestine juices into the stomach

  • After the stomach the pyloric sphincter opens and lets Chyme pass on into the small intestine

  • The first part of the small intestine is called the duodenum

  • The duodenum has ducts that enter the duodenum that release many different chemicals


  • Duodenum releases juices into the stomach

    • Bile comes from liver. Bile is often stored in the Gall Bladder Emulsifies fat.

    • Pancreatic Juices

      • Juices from the organ called the pancreas

      • Sodium bicarbonate NaHCO3turns the acidic chyme basic

      • Pancreatic amylase  breaks down starch into disaccharides. Enzyme.

      • Trypsin  breaks down protein into peptides. Enzyme

      • Lipase  breaks down fat. Enzyme

      • Nuclease  breaks down nucleic acid into nucleotides


  • The small intestine is designed to absorb nutrients. juices into the stomach

    • It has a huge surface area. This is because the inside of the small intestine has finger-like projections called villi. Each villi has finger-like projections called microvilli

  • The small intestine has a thin layer of mucus over it. Under the mucus are the villi and microvilli. Sugars and amino acids pass through the mucus and get moved into the blood vessels.


Enzymes of the small intestine
Enzymes of the Small Intestine juices into the stomach

  • The small intestine has many enzymes that work there to help let materials pass through the wall of the small intestine

    • Maltase digests maltose into glucose

    • Peptidase  digests peptides into amino acids

    • Nucleosidases  digests nucleotides into bases, sugar, and phosphate



Moving into the large intestine
Moving into the Large Intestine into the blood by going through the

  • The Large Intestine is shorter in length but wider in diameter

  • Made up of several parts

    • Ascending colon – part of colon that goes up

    • Transverse colon – part of colon that goes along side

    • Descending colon – part of colon that goes down

    • Cecum – attached to ascending colon. Goes nowhere

    • Appendix – attached to cecum. Can get infected.

    • Rectum – where all the feces is stored. End of colon.

    • Anus – the muscular opening to expel feces.


Transverse Colon into the blood by going through the

Ascending

Colon

Descending

Colon

Cecum

Rectum

Appendix

Anus


What happens in the large intestine
What happens in the Large Intestine into the blood by going through the

  • The large intestine is full of bacteria. A lot the bacteria are anaerobic bacteria.

    • Anaerobic bacteria  bacteria that do not use oxygen. Bacteria that will die in the presence of oxygen.

  • These bacteria break down indigestible materials. They also produce some vitamins that are then absorbed by the large intestine wall.

  • The large intestine absorbs water out of the waste


Identify all the parts into the blood by going through the


Review
Review into the blood by going through the

  • Salivary Glands

    • Salivary amylase, moistens food

  • Stomach

    • Gastric Juices: Pepsin, HCl, Mucus

  • Pancreas

    • Pancreatic Juices: NaHCO3, Trypsin, Lipase

    • Insulin hormone is secreted into the blood

      • This hormone tells cells in the body to take up glucose

      • This hormone is released after eating when there is high glucose levels in the blood


  • Pancreas into the blood by going through the

    • Blood glucose levels are high  releases Insulin

      • Insulin causes cells to take up glucose

    • Blood glucose levels are low  releases Glucagon

      • Tells body to break down glycogen into glucose. Glycogen is found in the liver

      • Tells body to break down fat into glycerol and fatty acids.


  • Liver into the blood by going through the

    • Makes Bile

    • Removes any poisons from the blood

    • Stores Iron and many vitamins

    • Stores glycogen. This can be made into glucose

    • Regulates blood cholesterol levels

    • Produces Urea:

      • 2NH3 + CO2 H2N-C-NH2 + H2O

=O


Optimal ph for the enzyme
Optimal pH for the Enzyme into the blood by going through the


Salivary amylase into the blood by going through the

Pancreatic Amylase

Maltase

Name the Enzyme Involved

Polysaccharides  Maltose  Glucose

Proteins  Peptides  Amino Acids

Fats  Glycerol + Fatty Acids

Pepsin

Trypsin

Peptidase

Lipase


Remember to drink lots of water
Remember to Drink lots of water into the blood by going through the


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