Best practices for statistics
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Best Practices for Statistics. Best Practices. Purpose of Statistics. Best Practice: Know what you already know, what you want to know and what you don’t know. Starting with Your Research Question.

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Best Practices for Statistics

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Best practices for statistics

Best Practices for Statistics

Best practices

Best Practices

Purpose of statistics

Purpose of Statistics

Best practice know what you already know what you want to know and what you don t know

Best Practice:Know what you already know, what you want to know and what you don’t know

Starting with your research question

Starting with Your Research Question

How do users differ when (searching, finding, selecting) (articles, books, Web sites)?

What are factors associated with ___________?

What are the effects of ___________On ____________?

Which is better at improving _________?

How are people (finding, selecting, using) _______?

Kinds of variables

Kinds of Variables

Levels of measurement noir

Levels of Measurement (NOIR)

Another way

Another Way

Likert type scale

Likert-Type Scale?

Best practice have a comparison group

Best Practice:Have a Comparison Group

Ways of comparing

Ways of comparing…

Kinds of comparison

Kinds of Comparison

Best practice use a valid measure

Best Practice: Use a Valid Measure

Validity of measures

Validity of Measures

Are you actually measuring what you are trying to measure?

Use a tool with established validity

Use a tool with established validity

User Engagement Scale (UES)

Approaches and Study Skills Inventory for Students (ASSIST)

Establish validity of measures

Establish Validity of Measures

Best practice have a data plan

Best Practice: Have a Data Plan

Goal of data collection in statistics

Goal of Data Collection in Statistics

Best practices for statistics


Systematic (not random) deviation from the true value (

Data input

Data Input

Have a data entry plan

Train the inputters

Use data validation tricks


Best practice get to know your data

Best Practice:Get to know your data

Exploratory data analysis

Exploratory Data Analysis

Measures of central tendency

Measures of Central Tendency

Spread distribution

Spread & Distribution

Distribution or spread of qualitative data

Distribution or Spread of Qualitative Data

Pivot tables in excel

Pivot Tables in Excel

Demonstration of pivot tables for spread of qualitative data

Demonstration of Pivot Tables for Spread of Qualitative Data

Graph chart rules of thumb

Graph & Chart Rules of Thumb

Quantitative distributions

Quantitative Distributions

Exploratory data analysis1

Exploratory Data Analysis

  • John W. Tukey

  • Exploratory Data Analysis

  • Examining your data visually.

    • Stem & Leaf

    • Hinges

    • Box plots

    • Scatter plots, etc.

Stem and leaf


First digit(s)

Last digit

From stem and leaf to histograms

From Stem-and-Leaf to Histograms

Histograms in excel

Histograms in Excel

Demonstration of histogram in excel

Demonstration of Histogram in Excel

Spread of quantitative data

Spread of Quantitative Data

How variable is the data?

Range quartiles

Range & Quartiles

Presentation of spread

Presentation of Spread

  • Box plots

    • Median

    • Upper & lower quartiles

    • Outliers

Standard deviation

Standard Deviation

  • Measure of dispersion of data

  • Square root of the average variation from the mean

What does the sd tell you

What does the SD tell you?

Spread in excel

Spread in Excel

Normal distribution

Normal Distribution

Skewed distributions

Skewed Distributions

Demonstration of distributions

Demonstration of distributions

Distribution of the Population

The “Truth”

N is the # of samples

n is the number of items in each sample

Watch the cumulative mean & medians slowly merge to the population

Best practice if it doesn t fit change it

Best Practice:If it doesn’t fit, change it

Transformation of data

Why transform

Why Transform?

How transformation works

How Transformation Works

How to become normal

How to Become Normal

  • Express the result in the terms of the transformation

Best practice place your bets before you start

Best Practice: Place your bets before you start

Inferential statistics

Inferential Statistics

Hypothesis testing

Hypothesis Testing

Example hypothesis

Example Hypothesis

UNT Libraries provides access to…

*…of journal articles cited by UNT PACS faculty in journal articles published between 2008-2011.

Hypothesis testing1

Hypothesis Testing

Testing hypotheses

Testing Hypotheses

Best practice choose the best method for your question and data

Best Practice:Choose the Best Method for your Question and Data

Know the tests

Know the tests

Factors associated with choice of statistical method

Factors associated with choice of statistical method

Use a flow chart

Use a Flow Chart

Best practice going beyond the p value

Best Practice: Going Beyond the p-value

And the p value says

And the p-value says…

More useful statistics

More Useful Statistics

Effect sizes of quantitative data

Effect Sizes of Quantitative Data

Effect sizes of qualitative data

Effect Sizes of Qualitative Data

Confidence intervals

Confidence Intervals

Statistical analysis

Statistical Analysis

Best practices1

Best Practices



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