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ฟิสิกส์อะตอม PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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ฟิสิกส์อะตอม. Heinrich Geissler. ประดิษฐ์เครื่องสูบสุญญากาศ. มีกระแสไฟฟ้าผ่านหลอดและมีสีเขียวจางๆเกิดขึ้นที่ผนังของหลอด. Sir William Crookes. รังสีแคโทดเดินทางเป็นเส้นตรง. รังสีแคโทดเบนในสนามแม่เหล็ก. สมบัติรังสีแคโทด. วัสดุหลายชนิดที่ใช้ทำแคโทด จะให้รังสีแคโทดที่มีสมบัติอย่างเดียวกัน

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Heinrich geissler

Heinrich Geissler


Sir william crookes

Sir William Crookes


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Joseph john thomson

Joseph John Thomson


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Thomson


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R


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Thomson 1.4 10-3 9.13 1.0 322


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  • 1,800 1,800


Robert a millikan

Robert A. Millikan


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  • Millikan 6.4 10 15

    7 1 1.6 10 19


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Thomson


Ernest rutherford

Ernest Rutherford

(alpha particle)


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Rutherford


Rutherford

Rutherford


Rutherford1

Rutherford


Rutherford2

Rutherford


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Bohr


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Bohr

1 (stationary state)

2 Planck 2mvr = n

  • n


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mke2r = (mvr)2


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=+


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E1= - 13.6 eV

n = 1,2,3


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  • h

E = Ei Ef = h


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  • (ground state)

  • (excited state)En n 2, 3,4.


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(Lymann Series) UV

nf = 1 , ni = 2, 3, 4

(Balmer Series)

nf = 2, ni = 3, 4, 5

(Paschen Series)

nf = 3 , ni = 4, 5, 6

(Bracket Series)

nf = 4, ni = 5, 6, 7

(Pfund Series)

nf = 5, ni = 6, 7, 8


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n = 3


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Bohr

  • (Zeeman effect)


Black body radiation

(black body radiation)

(continuous spectrum)


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  • (black body)


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T

B = AT 4

-


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  • (oscillator)


Planck

Planck

1 E = nh

E

h Planck ( Plancks constant) 6.625 10-34

n 1,2 ,3 ......

2


Photoelectric effect

(Photoelectric effect)


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  • (Photoelectrons)

  • (Stopping potential)


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  • Vs


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  • 1.

  • 2.


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  • 1


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  • (Photon) h h

  • hv


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  • (Work function)


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h = (Ek)max + Wo

(Ek)max

Wo


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  • 589.3 0.36


Compton effect

Compton effect


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  • .. 2466 (Arthur Holly Compton) (Scattered x-ray)


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  • 2


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  • ()


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  • E = mc2

  • E = h

  • h= mc2

  • c


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  • 0.124 1.0 %


X rays

(X-rays)

Wilhelm K.Roentgen


X ray tube

(x-ray tube)


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  • V eV

bremsstrahlung

min

(continuous X-rays)


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hmax = eV


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  • ( K) K L M N

(characteristic X-rays)


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n = 2

n = 1

n = 3

n = 1


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  • 10,000


X ray diffraction

(x-ray diffraction)

  • .. 2455 10 9 -10 10

  • (NaCl)


X ray diffraction1

(x-ray diffraction)


X ray diffraction2

(x-ray diffraction)


X ray diffraction3

(x-ray diffraction)

  • (Sir William Bragg)

    2d sin = n

    n = 1, 2, 3,.

    n = 1 1

    n = 2 2


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  • Werner Heisenberg (1901-1976 )

  • 1932 (uncertainty principle)


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2


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- x

- k k

-


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  • x

  • x


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  • k k

    x . k 1


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  • x

  • p


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  • ((p =0) (x=)

  • (x=0) (p = )


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9.1 10 31 2 10 6 v 0.2 10 6 ( 10 % )


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1,000 1 0.1 (10% )


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  • .. 1925 (Quantum mechanics)


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  • (Erwin Schrodinger) (wave packet) (group velocity)


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