Properties of Solutions. Chapter 11. Solutions. . . . the components of a mixture are uniformly intermingled (the mixture is homogeneous ). Solution Composition. 1.Molarity ( M ) = 2.Mass (weight) percent = 3.Mole fraction ( A ) = 4.Molality ( m ) =. Molarity Calculations.
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Three steps of a liquid solution: 1) expanding the solute,
2) expanding the solvent, & 3) combining the expanded
solute and solvent to form the solution.
a) Hsoln is negative and solution process is exothermic.
b) Hsoln is positve and solution process is endothermic.
Processes that require large amounts of energy tend not to
occur. Solution process are favored by an increase in entropy.
The amount of a gas dissolved in a solution is directly proportional to the pressure of the gas above the solution.
Solubility of several solids as a function of temperature.
The solubility of various gases at different
When an aqueous solution and pure water are in a closed
environment, the water is transferred to the solution
because of the difference in vapor pressure.
The presence of a nonvolatile solute lowers the vapor pressure of a solvent.
Vapor pressure for a solution of two volatile liquids.
a) Ideal(benzene & toluene) -- obeys Raoult’s Law,
b) Positive deviation (ethanol & hexane) from Raoult’s
Law, & c) Negative deviation (acetone & water).
Negative deviation is due to hydrogen bonding.
Phase diagrams for pure water and for an aqueous
solution containing a nonvolatile solute -- liquid range
is extended for the solution.
Due to osmotic pressure,
the solution is diluted by
water transferred through
membrane. The diluted
solution travels up the
thistle tube until the osmotic pressure is balanced by the
a) The pure solvent travels at a greater rate into the solution than
solvent molecules can travel in the reverse direction.
b) At equilibrium, the rate of travel of solvent molecules in both
directions is equal.
van’t Hoff factor, “i”, relates to the number of ions per formula unit.
NaCl = 2, K2SO4 = 3
The eight types of colloids and examples of each.