Molecular geometry
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Molecular Geometry. http://www.scl.ameslab.gov/MacMolPlt/Surface.JPG. A - central atom. X -surrounding atom. E -nonbonding valence electron-group. integers. VSEPR - Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion Theory. Each group of valence electrons around a central atom is

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Molecular Geometry

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Molecular geometry

Molecular Geometry

http://www.scl.ameslab.gov/MacMolPlt/Surface.JPG


Molecular geometry

A - central atom

X -surrounding atom

E -nonbonding valence electron-group

integers

VSEPR - Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion Theory

  • Each group of valence electrons around a central atom is

    located as far away as possible from the others in order to minimize repulsions.

  • The result is five electron-group arrangements of minimum energy seen in a large majority of molecules and polyatomic ions.

  • Because valence electrons can be bonding or nonbonding, the same electron-group arrangement can give rise to different molecular shapes.

AXmEn

Silberberg, Principles of Chemistry


Molecular geometry

linear

tetrahedral

trigonal planar

trigonal bipyramidal

octahedral

Figure 10.3

Electron-group repulsions and the five basic molecular shapes.

Silberberg, Principles of Chemistry


Molecular geometry

Figure 10.4

The single molecular shape of the linear electron-group

arrangement.

Examples:

CS2, HCN, BeF2

Silberberg, Principles of Chemistry


Molecular geometry

Class

Shape

Figure 10.5

The two molecular shapes of the trigonal planar electron-group arrangement.

Examples:

SO2, O3, PbCl2, SnBr2

Examples:

SO3, BF3, NO3-, CO32-

Silberberg, Principles of Chemistry


Molecular geometry

The three molecular shapes of the tetrahedral electron-group arrangement.

Figure 10.6

Examples:

CH4, SiCl4, SO42-, ClO4-

NH3

PF3

ClO3

H3O+

H2O

OF2

SCl2

Silberberg, Principles of Chemistry


Molecular geometry

Figure 10.8

The four molecular shapes of the trigonal bipyramidal electron-group arrangement.

PF5

AsF5

SOF4

SF4

XeO2F2

IF4+

IO2F2-

XeF2

I3-

IF2-

ClF3

BrF3

Silberberg, Principles of Chemistry


Molecular geometry

Figure 10.9

The three molecular shapes of the octahedral electron-group arrangement.

SF6

IOF5

BrF5

TeF5-

XeOF4

XeF4

ICl4-

Silberberg, Principles of Chemistry


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