Wireless Power Supply & Data Link for Biomedical Applications
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Supervisor Dr. Adnan Harb Student Name: ID#: Abeer Youssef 199903963 Amna Rashid 980722662 Maryam Kha - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Wireless Power Supply & Data Link for Biomedical Applications. Supervisor Dr. Adnan Harb Student Name: ID#: Abeer Youssef 199903963 Amna Rashid 980722662 Maryam Khamis 200002184 Samar Ali 200105345 Committee Members Dr. Ali Assi Dr. Mawahib Sulieman

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Wireless Power Supply & Data Link for Biomedical Applications

Supervisor

Dr. Adnan Harb

Student Name: ID#:

Abeer Youssef 199903963

Amna Rashid 980722662

Maryam Khamis 200002184

Samar Ali 200105345

Committee Members

Dr. Ali Assi

Dr. Mawahib Sulieman

Dr. Abdulrazag Zekri

25th May, 2006


Presenation Outline Applications

  • Introduction

  • Project Description

  • Project Objectives

  • Theoretical Background

  • Procedure & Results

  • Standards

  • Safety Standards

  • Social Impact & Environmental Effects

  • Cost Estimation

  • Conclusion & Recommendations


Introduction Applications

  • Biomedical Engineering

    • Biomedical engineeringis a discipline that advances knowledge in engineering, biology and medicine, and improves human health through cross-disciplinary activities that integrate the engineering sciences with the biomedical sciences and clinical practice.

    • Started in 1800s (electrophysiology / X-Ray)

  • Biomedical Applications


Introduction Applications

  • Why Wireless Power Supply?

    • Implantable Biomedical Microchip devices need power supply; however, it's neither practical nor healthy to provide that supply using traditional methods such as:

    • Batteries

      • Surgery Required to Replace Batteries

    • Charging Plugs

      • Skin Infection

    • Alternative:

      Wireless Power Supply


Project Description Applications

  • Transmitter:

    • Digital Data Modulating Signal

    • AC Power Signal

  • Transmitted By:

    • Inductive Coils

    • Antennas

  • Receiver:

    • Data

    • Power


Project Objectives Applications

  • Design and Characterize a CMOS Microchip for power and data link

    • The design includes:

      • Voltage Rectifier.

      • Voltage regulator.

      • Demodulator.

    • The chip will be implemented using Synopsys EDA NEW tool (CosmosSE)

  • Prepare CosmosSE Tutorial for Students.


  • Source Applications

    Gate

    Drain

    Theoretical Background

    • MOS Technology

      • Type of MOS Transistors:

        • NMOS

        • PMOS

      • CMOS Technology Principles

      • Analog CMOS Applications

        • Analog Switches – Analog Multiplexers – DACs - ADCs

      • Digital CMOS Applications

        • ASICs – Microprocessors - Memories


    Theoretical Background Applications

    • CMOS Inverter

      • Inverter Basics

      • Inverter Function

      • Inverter Operation


    Theoretical Background Applications

    • Voltage Rectifier

      • Definition

        electrical Device comprising on or more diodes arranged for converting alternating current (AC) to direct current (DC).

      • Half Wave Rectifier

      • Full Wave Rectifier

      • Smoothing (Filtering) Circuits


    Theoretical Background Applications

    • Full Wave Voltage Doubler

    Advantages ( full utilization of the transformer's capability)

    Disadvantages of full wave voltage doublers

    (To achieve acceptable voltage regulation)


    RC Circuits Applications

    RC circuits are among the most useful, simple and robust passive electric circuits, and play integral roles in everyday equipment such as traffic lights, pacemakers and audio equipment.

    An RC circuit contains of a resistor and capacitor

    (RC Circuit)

    Time constant τ = RC


    Theoretical Background Applications

    • Current Mirror Principles

    • Power Dissipation in Microelectronics

      • dynamic switching power

        • (due to the charging and discharging circuit capacitances),

      • leakage current power

        • (from reverse-biased diodes and sub-threshold conduction),

      • Short-circuit current power

        • (due to finite signal rise/fall times)

      • Static biasing power.


    Static Power Dissipation (Analog Circuits)

    It is due mainly to biasing current of analog circuits and to any static current in analog or digital circuit.

    Dynamic Power Dissipation (Digital Circuits)

    Charging and discharging capacitive loads (for example gate capacitance).

    Direct path or short circuit current (switching transient).

    Ptotal = Ps + Pd + Pshort-circuit


    Temperature Effects on Semiconductor Devices Performance considered:

    There are several factors that determine the operating

    temperature limit of a semiconductor device they are:

    • The properties of the basic semiconductor material (Si, GaAs, SiC, ...).

    • The type of device (diode, bipolar transistor, field-effect transistor, ...).

    • The design of the device (materials, geometry and dimensions).

    • The materials and designs of the contacts and interconnections.

    • The assembly and packaging techniques and materials.

    • The type of circuit in which the device is used (analog or digital) and the circuit design.

    • What is meant by "operating temperature limit" and the particular application.

    • How long the device needs to operate at the extreme temperature.


    Design Review considered:

    (Power Supply System Design)


    Mixer Implementation considered:

    The idea was to create a mixer that multiplies the digital signal with the analog signal and create the model using HSPICE Simulation syntax.


    (Mixer Test Bench) considered:

    (Mixer Properties Window)

    Mixer Implementation


    Mixer Simulation & Results considered:

    Mixer output


    (The current path in positive half cycle) considered:

    Voltage Rectifier Design & Simulation

    The voltage rectifier converts the AC signal to DC through a full wave rectifier to minimize the power loss.

    (Rectifier Input and Output)

    (The current path in negative half cycle)


    ( considered:Rectifier Test Bench)

    (Rectifier Schematic)

    Voltage Rectifier Simulation& Results


    ( considered:Rectifier output: C=3nF, R=3KΩ)

    (Rectifier output: C=1nF, R=100KΩ)

    Voltage Rectifier Simulation& Results


    (Demodulator Circuit Schematic) considered:

    Demodulator Design& Simulation

    The function of the demodulator is to extracts the digital information mounted on the power signal (carrier signal) and passes it to the implant.


    ( considered:Demodulator Test Bench)

    Demodulator Design& Simulation

    (Pulse Generator Properties)


    Demodulator Design & Simulation considered:

    The HSPICE model library was viewed to check the threshold voltage value for each MOS type; the NMOS threshold value was found to be 0.3959 volts, while the PMOS threshold was -0.3630 Volts.

    The model library was also checked for the transistor length and width ranges. The values are shown in

    (Transistor Model Limitations)


    Demodulator Simulation considered:

    Demodulator Parameters


    (Digital Signal Improvment) considered:

    Demodulator Simulation


    (Demodulator in The Real System Test Bench) considered:

    Demodulator & Rectifier Simulation


    ( considered:Output of Demodulator and Rectifier)

    Demodulator & Rectifier Simulation

    The system simulation was run for rectifier values of (R= 3KΩ , C= 3nF)


    (output with C= 0.1n, R= 50K considered:)

    Demodulator & Rectifier Simulation


    ( considered:Rectifier output: C= 10pF, R=50KΩ)

    Rectifier Modification

    The rectifier parameters where changed to obtain a DC signal with sharp digitized ripples.


    (output after the Rectifier modification) considered:

    Rectifier: C= 10p, Rout= 50K, Demodulator: C= 1p, R= 10K

    Demodulator & Rectifier Simulation


    (Demodulator Output) considered:

    Rectifier: C= 10p, Rout= 50K, Demodulator: C= 20p, R= 50K

    Demodulator & Rectifier Simulation


    Procedure results voltage regulator

    b considered:

    a

    Procedure & Results (Voltage Regulator)

    • Voltage Regulator Operation

    • Schematic In CosmosSE


    Procedure results voltage regulator1
    Procedure & Results considered:(Voltage Regulator)

    • Transistor Sizing Criteria

    • Voltage Regulator Simulation


    Procedure results voltage regulator2
    Procedure & Results considered:(Voltage Regulator)

    • Voltage Regulator Final Results

    • Output Voltage for 2.2V input was 1.4 Volts


    Procedure results overall system
    Procedure & Results considered:(Overall System)

    • System Schematic & Simulation


    Procedure results overall system1
    Procedure & Results considered:(Overall System)

    • Demodulator Modification & Final Results


    Procedure results overall system2
    Procedure & Results considered:(Overall System)

    • Voltage Regulator Modification & Final Results


    Procedure results overall system3
    Procedure & Results considered:(Overall System)

    • Regulator Final Output

    • Final System Output


    Procedure results characterization
    Procedure & Results considered:(Characterization)

    • Temperature Effects:

      • Simulation Temperature

        • Default: 25oC

        • Simulate the System For:

          • 32oC: Minimum Human Body Temperature

          • 37oC: Normal Body Temperature

          • 42oC: Maximum Human Body Temperature

    • Simulation Results:


    Procedure results characterization1
    Procedure & Results considered:(Characterization)

    • Load Effects:

      • Minimum Accepted Load: 120kΩ

      • Maximum Accepted Load: 20kΩ

    • Simulation Results:


    Procedure results efficiency
    Procedure & Results considered:(Efficiency)

    • Efficiency Calculation:

    • Output Power Calculation

    • Input Power Calculation

      • Input current to the system is unavailable

      • Voltage Regulator Equivalent Resistance is unknown

    • Solution: Calculate the current in the V.R.


    Procedure results efficiency1
    Procedure & Results considered:(Efficiency)

    • Current Calculation:

      • Using the Final Values of R , w and l

    • Input Power Calculation:

    • Input Power = 159.125μW

    • Efficiency = 38.4169% (Low)

    • For Further Load Calculation:

      • Input Power is Constant as Approximated Before.

      • Output power depends on the Load

    • For Maximum Load (20kΩ), Efficiency was: 81.4%


    Standards considered:

    • No standards should be followed during the design phase of the project.

    • If the chip was Fabricated, then specific standards related to Microelectronics fabrication and safety should be considered.


    Standards considered:

    Clean room:

    A room in which the number of particles in a given volume of air, the pressure, temperature, and humidity are monitored to attain the appropriate levels of cleanliness. 

    An air flow system must be installed to ensure that there is no accumulation of particles in the room and also to promote their downward flow.


    Safety Standards considered:

    • Electrical safety:

      equipments should be isolated from energy sources.

    • Chemical safety:

      all chemical compounds should be kept in a safe place in order to not cause any serious accident.


    Social Impact & Environmental Effects considered:

    • Social Impact

      • Biomedical Application (Health Care)

      • Surgery

    • Environmental Effects

      • Chip EMF Effects on Environment

        • Low power – Least Effect

      • EMF Effects on Chip Performance

        • For regular Cell Phones, no Direct Relation

        • Preferred to be away from Electric Machines

      • Chip is Packed, No Effect on Human Body


    Design phase

    Cost Estimation considered:

    Design Phase

    • Design Engineers Salary

    • Machines, PCs, and Laptops

    • EDA Tool

    Fabrication Phase

    • Wafer

    • Chip Fabrication

    • Chip Packaging

    • Testing


    Cost Estimation considered:

    • Fabrication Company: ST Microelectronics

    • Price: 1,182$/mm2 (15 Chips)

    • Estimated Chip Area: Less than 10mm2


    Conclusion & Recommendations considered:

    • Summary

    • Problems:

      • Connection:

        • the university network was down for more than 10 days in the beginning of the semester

        • the tool license had expired (Twice) during the semester, once at the beginning of the semester, and the next one before few days from submitting the final report.


    Conclusion & Recommendations considered:

    • Recommendations

      • there would be time management between the graduation unit and other faculty student in case of sharing an application with limited licenses

      • DSO provided the tool for free, it is recommended that it would provide the license for longer time (1 year minimum) so that the university won't have to renew it every few months.



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