Wireless Power Supply & Data Link for Biomedical Applications
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Supervisor Dr. Adnan Harb Student Name: ID#: Abeer Youssef199903963 Amna Rashid980722662 Maryam Khamis200002184 Samar Ali200105345 PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Wireless Power Supply & Data Link for Biomedical Applications. Supervisor Dr. Adnan Harb Student Name: ID#: Abeer Youssef199903963 Amna Rashid980722662 Maryam Khamis200002184 Samar Ali200105345 Committee Members Dr. Ali Assi Dr. Mawahib Sulieman

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Supervisor Dr. Adnan Harb Student Name: ID#: Abeer Youssef199903963 Amna Rashid980722662 Maryam Khamis200002184 Samar Ali200105345

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Supervisor dr adnan harb student name id abeer youssef 199903963 amna rashid 980722662 maryam khamis 200002184 samar ali 200105345

Wireless Power Supply & Data Link for Biomedical Applications

Supervisor

Dr. Adnan Harb

Student Name: ID#:

Abeer Youssef199903963

Amna Rashid980722662

Maryam Khamis200002184

Samar Ali200105345

Committee Members

Dr. Ali Assi

Dr. Mawahib Sulieman

Dr. Abdulrazag Zekri

25th May, 2006


Supervisor dr adnan harb student name id abeer youssef 199903963 amna rashid 980722662 maryam khamis 200002184 samar ali 200105345

Presenation Outline

  • Introduction

  • Project Description

  • Project Objectives

  • Theoretical Background

  • Procedure & Results

  • Standards

  • Safety Standards

  • Social Impact & Environmental Effects

  • Cost Estimation

  • Conclusion & Recommendations


Supervisor dr adnan harb student name id abeer youssef 199903963 amna rashid 980722662 maryam khamis 200002184 samar ali 200105345

Introduction

  • Biomedical Engineering

    • Biomedical engineeringis a discipline that advances knowledge in engineering, biology and medicine, and improves human health through cross-disciplinary activities that integrate the engineering sciences with the biomedical sciences and clinical practice.

    • Started in 1800s (electrophysiology / X-Ray)

  • Biomedical Applications


Supervisor dr adnan harb student name id abeer youssef 199903963 amna rashid 980722662 maryam khamis 200002184 samar ali 200105345

Introduction

  • Why Wireless Power Supply?

    • Implantable Biomedical Microchip devices need power supply; however, it's neither practical nor healthy to provide that supply using traditional methods such as:

    • Batteries

      • Surgery Required to Replace Batteries

    • Charging Plugs

      • Skin Infection

    • Alternative:

      Wireless Power Supply


Supervisor dr adnan harb student name id abeer youssef 199903963 amna rashid 980722662 maryam khamis 200002184 samar ali 200105345

Project Description

  • Transmitter:

    • Digital Data Modulating Signal

    • AC Power Signal

  • Transmitted By:

    • Inductive Coils

    • Antennas

  • Receiver:

    • Data

    • Power


Supervisor dr adnan harb student name id abeer youssef 199903963 amna rashid 980722662 maryam khamis 200002184 samar ali 200105345

Project Objectives

  • Design and Characterize a CMOS Microchip for power and data link

    • The design includes:

      • Voltage Rectifier.

      • Voltage regulator.

      • Demodulator.

    • The chip will be implemented using Synopsys EDA NEW tool (CosmosSE)

  • Prepare CosmosSE Tutorial for Students.


  • Supervisor dr adnan harb student name id abeer youssef 199903963 amna rashid 980722662 maryam khamis 200002184 samar ali 200105345

    Source

    Gate

    Drain

    Theoretical Background

    • MOS Technology

      • Type of MOS Transistors:

        • NMOS

        • PMOS

      • CMOS Technology Principles

      • Analog CMOS Applications

        • Analog Switches – Analog Multiplexers – DACs - ADCs

      • Digital CMOS Applications

        • ASICs – Microprocessors - Memories


    Supervisor dr adnan harb student name id abeer youssef 199903963 amna rashid 980722662 maryam khamis 200002184 samar ali 200105345

    Theoretical Background

    • CMOS Inverter

      • Inverter Basics

      • Inverter Function

      • Inverter Operation


    Supervisor dr adnan harb student name id abeer youssef 199903963 amna rashid 980722662 maryam khamis 200002184 samar ali 200105345

    Theoretical Background

    • Voltage Rectifier

      • Definition

        electrical Device comprising on or more diodes arranged for converting alternating current (AC) to direct current (DC).

      • Half Wave Rectifier

      • Full Wave Rectifier

      • Smoothing (Filtering) Circuits


    Supervisor dr adnan harb student name id abeer youssef 199903963 amna rashid 980722662 maryam khamis 200002184 samar ali 200105345

    Theoretical Background

    • Full Wave Voltage Doubler

    Advantages ( full utilization of the transformer's capability)

    Disadvantages of full wave voltage doublers

    (To achieve acceptable voltage regulation)


    Supervisor dr adnan harb student name id abeer youssef 199903963 amna rashid 980722662 maryam khamis 200002184 samar ali 200105345

    RC Circuits

    RC circuits are among the most useful, simple and robust passive electric circuits, and play integral roles in everyday equipment such as traffic lights, pacemakers and audio equipment.

    An RC circuit contains of a resistor and capacitor

    (RC Circuit)

    Time constant τ = RC


    Supervisor dr adnan harb student name id abeer youssef 199903963 amna rashid 980722662 maryam khamis 200002184 samar ali 200105345

    Theoretical Background

    • Current Mirror Principles

    • Power Dissipation in Microelectronics

      • dynamic switching power

        • (due to the charging and discharging circuit capacitances),

      • leakage current power

        • (from reverse-biased diodes and sub-threshold conduction),

      • Short-circuit current power

        • (due to finite signal rise/fall times)

      • Static biasing power.


    Supervisor dr adnan harb student name id abeer youssef 199903963 amna rashid 980722662 maryam khamis 200002184 samar ali 200105345

    • Two components of power dissipation in CMOS circuits will be considered:

      1. Static power

      2. Dynamic power

    Static Power Dissipation (Analog Circuits)

    It is due mainly to biasing current of analog circuits and to any static current in analog or digital circuit.

    Dynamic Power Dissipation (Digital Circuits)

    Charging and discharging capacitive loads (for example gate capacitance).

    Direct path or short circuit current (switching transient).

    Ptotal = Ps + Pd + Pshort-circuit


    Supervisor dr adnan harb student name id abeer youssef 199903963 amna rashid 980722662 maryam khamis 200002184 samar ali 200105345

    Temperature Effects on Semiconductor Devices Performance

    There are several factors that determine the operating

    temperature limit of a semiconductor device they are:

    • The properties of the basic semiconductor material (Si, GaAs, SiC, ...).

    • The type of device (diode, bipolar transistor, field-effect transistor, ...).

    • The design of the device (materials, geometry and dimensions).

    • The materials and designs of the contacts and interconnections.

    • The assembly and packaging techniques and materials.

    • The type of circuit in which the device is used (analog or digital) and the circuit design.

    • What is meant by "operating temperature limit" and the particular application.

    • How long the device needs to operate at the extreme temperature.


    Supervisor dr adnan harb student name id abeer youssef 199903963 amna rashid 980722662 maryam khamis 200002184 samar ali 200105345

    Design Review

    (Power Supply System Design)


    Supervisor dr adnan harb student name id abeer youssef 199903963 amna rashid 980722662 maryam khamis 200002184 samar ali 200105345

    Mixer Implementation

    The idea was to create a mixer that multiplies the digital signal with the analog signal and create the model using HSPICE Simulation syntax.


    Supervisor dr adnan harb student name id abeer youssef 199903963 amna rashid 980722662 maryam khamis 200002184 samar ali 200105345

    (Mixer Test Bench)

    (Mixer Properties Window)

    Mixer Implementation


    Supervisor dr adnan harb student name id abeer youssef 199903963 amna rashid 980722662 maryam khamis 200002184 samar ali 200105345

    Mixer Simulation & Results

    Mixer output


    Supervisor dr adnan harb student name id abeer youssef 199903963 amna rashid 980722662 maryam khamis 200002184 samar ali 200105345

    (The current path in positive half cycle)

    Voltage Rectifier Design & Simulation

    The voltage rectifier converts the AC signal to DC through a full wave rectifier to minimize the power loss.

    (Rectifier Input and Output)

    (The current path in negative half cycle)


    Supervisor dr adnan harb student name id abeer youssef 199903963 amna rashid 980722662 maryam khamis 200002184 samar ali 200105345

    (Rectifier Test Bench)

    (Rectifier Schematic)

    Voltage Rectifier Simulation& Results


    Supervisor dr adnan harb student name id abeer youssef 199903963 amna rashid 980722662 maryam khamis 200002184 samar ali 200105345

    (Rectifier output: C=3nF, R=3KΩ)

    (Rectifier output: C=1nF, R=100KΩ)

    Voltage Rectifier Simulation& Results


    Supervisor dr adnan harb student name id abeer youssef 199903963 amna rashid 980722662 maryam khamis 200002184 samar ali 200105345

    (Demodulator Circuit Schematic)

    Demodulator Design& Simulation

    The function of the demodulator is to extracts the digital information mounted on the power signal (carrier signal) and passes it to the implant.


    Supervisor dr adnan harb student name id abeer youssef 199903963 amna rashid 980722662 maryam khamis 200002184 samar ali 200105345

    (Demodulator Test Bench)

    Demodulator Design& Simulation

    (Pulse Generator Properties)


    Supervisor dr adnan harb student name id abeer youssef 199903963 amna rashid 980722662 maryam khamis 200002184 samar ali 200105345

    Demodulator Design & Simulation

    The HSPICE model library was viewed to check the threshold voltage value for each MOS type; the NMOS threshold value was found to be 0.3959 volts, while the PMOS threshold was -0.3630 Volts.

    The model library was also checked for the transistor length and width ranges. The values are shown in

    (Transistor Model Limitations)


    Supervisor dr adnan harb student name id abeer youssef 199903963 amna rashid 980722662 maryam khamis 200002184 samar ali 200105345

    Demodulator Simulation

    Demodulator Parameters


    Supervisor dr adnan harb student name id abeer youssef 199903963 amna rashid 980722662 maryam khamis 200002184 samar ali 200105345

    (Digital Signal Improvment)

    Demodulator Simulation


    Supervisor dr adnan harb student name id abeer youssef 199903963 amna rashid 980722662 maryam khamis 200002184 samar ali 200105345

    (Demodulator in The Real System Test Bench)

    Demodulator & Rectifier Simulation


    Supervisor dr adnan harb student name id abeer youssef 199903963 amna rashid 980722662 maryam khamis 200002184 samar ali 200105345

    (Output of Demodulator and Rectifier)

    Demodulator & Rectifier Simulation

    The system simulation was run for rectifier values of (R= 3KΩ , C= 3nF)


    Supervisor dr adnan harb student name id abeer youssef 199903963 amna rashid 980722662 maryam khamis 200002184 samar ali 200105345

    (output with C= 0.1n, R= 50K)

    Demodulator & Rectifier Simulation


    Supervisor dr adnan harb student name id abeer youssef 199903963 amna rashid 980722662 maryam khamis 200002184 samar ali 200105345

    (Rectifier output: C= 10pF, R=50KΩ)

    Rectifier Modification

    The rectifier parameters where changed to obtain a DC signal with sharp digitized ripples.


    Supervisor dr adnan harb student name id abeer youssef 199903963 amna rashid 980722662 maryam khamis 200002184 samar ali 200105345

    (output after the Rectifier modification)

    Rectifier: C= 10p, Rout= 50K, Demodulator: C= 1p, R= 10K

    Demodulator & Rectifier Simulation


    Supervisor dr adnan harb student name id abeer youssef 199903963 amna rashid 980722662 maryam khamis 200002184 samar ali 200105345

    (Demodulator Output)

    Rectifier: C= 10p, Rout= 50K, Demodulator: C= 20p, R= 50K

    Demodulator & Rectifier Simulation


    Procedure results voltage regulator

    b

    a

    Procedure & Results (Voltage Regulator)

    • Voltage Regulator Operation

    • Schematic In CosmosSE


    Procedure results voltage regulator1

    Procedure & Results (Voltage Regulator)

    • Transistor Sizing Criteria

    • Voltage Regulator Simulation


    Procedure results voltage regulator2

    Procedure & Results (Voltage Regulator)

    • Voltage Regulator Final Results

    • Output Voltage for 2.2V input was 1.4 Volts


    Procedure results overall system

    Procedure & Results (Overall System)

    • System Schematic & Simulation


    Procedure results overall system1

    Procedure & Results (Overall System)

    • Demodulator Modification & Final Results


    Procedure results overall system2

    Procedure & Results (Overall System)

    • Voltage Regulator Modification & Final Results


    Procedure results overall system3

    Procedure & Results (Overall System)

    • Regulator Final Output

    • Final System Output


    Procedure results characterization

    Procedure & Results (Characterization)

    • Temperature Effects:

      • Simulation Temperature

        • Default: 25oC

        • Simulate the System For:

          • 32oC: Minimum Human Body Temperature

          • 37oC: Normal Body Temperature

          • 42oC: Maximum Human Body Temperature

    • Simulation Results:


    Procedure results characterization1

    Procedure & Results (Characterization)

    • Load Effects:

      • Minimum Accepted Load: 120kΩ

      • Maximum Accepted Load: 20kΩ

    • Simulation Results:


    Procedure results efficiency

    Procedure & Results (Efficiency)

    • Efficiency Calculation:

    • Output Power Calculation

    • Input Power Calculation

      • Input current to the system is unavailable

      • Voltage Regulator Equivalent Resistance is unknown

    • Solution: Calculate the current in the V.R.


    Procedure results efficiency1

    Procedure & Results (Efficiency)

    • Current Calculation:

      • Using the Final Values of R , w and l

    • Input Power Calculation:

    • Input Power = 159.125μW

    • Efficiency = 38.4169% (Low)

    • For Further Load Calculation:

      • Input Power is Constant as Approximated Before.

      • Output power depends on the Load

    • For Maximum Load (20kΩ), Efficiency was: 81.4%


    Supervisor dr adnan harb student name id abeer youssef 199903963 amna rashid 980722662 maryam khamis 200002184 samar ali 200105345

    Standards

    • No standards should be followed during the design phase of the project.

    • If the chip was Fabricated, then specific standards related to Microelectronics fabrication and safety should be considered.


    Supervisor dr adnan harb student name id abeer youssef 199903963 amna rashid 980722662 maryam khamis 200002184 samar ali 200105345

    Standards

    Clean room:

    A room in which the number of particles in a given volume of air, the pressure, temperature, and humidity are monitored to attain the appropriate levels of cleanliness. 

    An air flow system must be installed to ensure that there is no accumulation of particles in the room and also to promote their downward flow.


    Supervisor dr adnan harb student name id abeer youssef 199903963 amna rashid 980722662 maryam khamis 200002184 samar ali 200105345

    Safety Standards

    • Electrical safety:

      equipments should be isolated from energy sources.

    • Chemical safety:

      all chemical compounds should be kept in a safe place in order to not cause any serious accident.


    Supervisor dr adnan harb student name id abeer youssef 199903963 amna rashid 980722662 maryam khamis 200002184 samar ali 200105345

    Social Impact & Environmental Effects

    • Social Impact

      • Biomedical Application (Health Care)

      • Surgery

    • Environmental Effects

      • Chip EMF Effects on Environment

        • Low power – Least Effect

      • EMF Effects on Chip Performance

        • For regular Cell Phones, no Direct Relation

        • Preferred to be away from Electric Machines

      • Chip is Packed, No Effect on Human Body


    Design phase

    Cost Estimation

    Design Phase

    • Design Engineers Salary

    • Machines, PCs, and Laptops

    • EDA Tool

    Fabrication Phase

    • Wafer

    • Chip Fabrication

    • Chip Packaging

    • Testing


    Supervisor dr adnan harb student name id abeer youssef 199903963 amna rashid 980722662 maryam khamis 200002184 samar ali 200105345

    Cost Estimation

    • Fabrication Company: ST Microelectronics

    • Price: 1,182$/mm2 (15 Chips)

    • Estimated Chip Area: Less than 10mm2


    Supervisor dr adnan harb student name id abeer youssef 199903963 amna rashid 980722662 maryam khamis 200002184 samar ali 200105345

    Conclusion & Recommendations

    • Summary

    • Problems:

      • Connection:

        • the university network was down for more than 10 days in the beginning of the semester

        • the tool license had expired (Twice) during the semester, once at the beginning of the semester, and the next one before few days from submitting the final report.


    Supervisor dr adnan harb student name id abeer youssef 199903963 amna rashid 980722662 maryam khamis 200002184 samar ali 200105345

    Conclusion & Recommendations

    • Recommendations

      • there would be time management between the graduation unit and other faculty student in case of sharing an application with limited licenses

      • DSO provided the tool for free, it is recommended that it would provide the license for longer time (1 year minimum) so that the university won't have to renew it every few months.


    Supervisor dr adnan harb student name id abeer youssef 199903963 amna rashid 980722662 maryam khamis 200002184 samar ali 200105345

    Thank You For Your Attention


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