Physiological Psychology

Physiological Psychology PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Organization of the cortex. Cortex has 6 distinct laminae (layers). Cortex is arranged via columns. Each column extends through several laminae and share similar functions. Cortex has two symmetrical halves, right and left. Cortex has a contralateral function. That is, one side of the brain controls the other side of the body.Two hemispheres are connected in two waysCorpus callosumAnterior commisure.

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Physiological Psychology

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1. Physiological Psychology Cortex / Research Methods

2. Organization of the cortex Cortex has 6 distinct laminae (layers)

3. Cortex is arranged via columns. Each column extends through several laminae and share similar functions

4. Cortex has two symmetrical halves, right and left. Cortex has a contralateral function. That is, one side of the brain controls the other side of the body. Two hemispheres are connected in two ways Corpus callosum Anterior commisure

7. Occipital lobe Vision: Primary visual cortex Temporal lobe Audition Wernicke’s area: Language comprehension

8. Parietal lobe Postcentray gyrus Primary somatosensory cortex Somatosensory function (touch, vibration, pain) Sensory areas have specific parts dedicated to certain parts of the body homunculus Association areas Combination of all senses with vision

10. Frontal lobe – very large, many functions Precentral gyrus: Primary motor cortex Generation of movement Broca’s area – production of speech Prefrontal cortex Integration of many types of information Thinking, planning, decision making lobotomies

11. Research methods and the brain Brain activity and behavior Gall and phrenology Behaviors are associated with certain cranial features

13. Approaches to the study of the brain Animals vs. humans 1. Correlate brain anatomy with behavior 2. Record brain activity during behavior 3. Examine the effects of brain damage 4. Examine the effects of stimulating some brain area.

14. Studies with animals In vitro vs. in vivo In Vitro analysis: “In the Lab” – brain tissue is removed, isolated, and studied on its own. Individual neurons can be studied Ex. Patch clamp technique In Vivo analysis: “In the Living” – the brain is studied in an intact animal

15. Lesions – remove portions of the brain in particular areas Stereotaxic – instrument that allows for precise calculation of lesion coordinates.

16. Types of lesions Electrolytic – electricity is passed through an area until the neurons in that area die Problem: axons passing through the area may be damaged as well. Chemical – specific drugs are administered that selectively destroy certain types of neurons Temporary lesions? Administration of drugs that shut off specific areas of the brain

17. Human research Study cases of brain damage Example: Phineas Gage Neural imaging – technology that allows inspection of an intact brain EEG: electroencephalogram – electrodes are placed on the scalp. It records the electrical activity of neurons. Event-related potentials Problem: It records from thousands of neurons at a time; not very precise

19. “CAT” scan: Computerized tomography Computer enhanced 3-D X-Rays Not much resolution, still life

20. MRI: Magnetic resonance imaging – uses magnetic fields to get brain scans Just get a picture

22. PET scan: Positron Emission Tomography – patients are injected with radioactive glucose. The scanner tracks where the glucose moves to. This is used as an indicator of neural activity. - Has problems: resolution is fairly low.

25. Functional MRI (fMRI) – Registers changes in the metabolism of cells Increase in blood flow to the local vasculature that accompanies neural activity in the brain. Get 3-D picture of real time brain activity Very expensive Restricted video

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