NOTES:     Spectral Class (Color-Temperature Class)
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NOTES: Spectral Class (Color-Temperature Class) : Annie Jump Cannon (1912) classified dark lines for 200,000 stars! O B A F G K M <----------------- T BLUE RED Subclasses : Sun is a G2V star.

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NOTES: Spectral Class (Color-Temperature Class):

Annie Jump Cannon (1912) classified dark lines for 200,000 stars!

O B A F G K M

<-----------------

T

BLUE RED

Subclasses: Sun is a G2V star.

A. 1-10 Spectral Subclass.

B. Luminosity Class I-V (I--supergiant, V--main sequence).

The Evolution of a Star:

Hertzsprung-Russell Diagram (1910): A plot of Luminosity vs Surface Temperature, T (see overlay). A one solar mass star like the sun goes through the stages of: protostar, main sequence, red giant, planetary nebula, white dwarf.


Spectral Class (Color-Temperature Class):

Annie Jump Cannon (1912) classified dark lines

for 200,000 stars!

O B A F G K M

Pnemonic: Oh Be A Fine Geek, Kiss Me



Subclasses: Sun is a G2V star.

A. 1-10 Spectral Subclass.

B. Luminosity Class I-V (I--supergiant, V--main sequence).


Nearby stars can be plotted--

Luminosity vs Surface Temperature, T:



The majority of stars lie on the Diagram:main sequence

of the H-R Diagram where they burn Hydrogen in their cores.


Arthur Eddington’s great discovery! Diagram:

Mass determines stages of star life.

Analogy: weigh the baby at birth,

and know everything that

will happen to the baby.

He also proved stars bend light

Like Einstein’s theory suggests.


Also he suggested that star pressure balances gravity. Diagram:

The outward pressure is created by heat and light.


The Hertzsprung-Russell, or H-R Diagram allows us Diagram:

to plot the stages of life of stars from their initial mass.

Lifetime of a 1 solar mass star


Multiple Star Systems: Diagram:

More than half have companions.

Most are: Binaries.


Optical double Diagram:--a false binary

--two stars not bound together, one at a greater distance.

Albireo, an optical double. 10/25/03


Spectroscopic binary Diagram::

We don't see separate stars, just separate spectra


Eclipsing binary Diagram:--one star eclipses another.

Two dips in the light curve.


Visual binary Diagram:--actually seen as separate.

Castor in Gemini: a visual binary


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