NOTES:     Spectral Class (Color-Temperature Class)
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NOTES: Spectral Class (Color-Temperature Class) : Annie Jump Cannon (1912) classified dark lines for 200,000 stars! O B A F G K M <----------------- T BLUE RED Subclasses : Sun is a G2V star.

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Notes spectral class color temperature class

NOTES: Spectral Class (Color-Temperature Class):

Annie Jump Cannon (1912) classified dark lines for 200,000 stars!

O B A F G K M

<-----------------

T

BLUE RED

Subclasses: Sun is a G2V star.

A. 1-10 Spectral Subclass.

B. Luminosity Class I-V (I--supergiant, V--main sequence).

The Evolution of a Star:

Hertzsprung-Russell Diagram (1910): A plot of Luminosity vs Surface Temperature, T (see overlay). A one solar mass star like the sun goes through the stages of: protostar, main sequence, red giant, planetary nebula, white dwarf.


Notes spectral class color temperature class

Spectral Class (Color-Temperature Class):

Annie Jump Cannon (1912) classified dark lines

for 200,000 stars!

O B A F G K M

Pnemonic: Oh Be A Fine Geek, Kiss Me


Notes spectral class color temperature class

<------------------

T

BLUE RED


Notes spectral class color temperature class

Subclasses: Sun is a G2V star.

A. 1-10 Spectral Subclass.

B. Luminosity Class I-V (I--supergiant, V--main sequence).


Notes spectral class color temperature class

Nearby stars can be plotted--

Luminosity vs Surface Temperature, T:


Notes spectral class color temperature class

The more stars we plot, the more we see patterns. HR Diagram:


Notes spectral class color temperature class

The majority of stars lie on the main sequence

of the H-R Diagram where they burn Hydrogen in their cores.


Notes spectral class color temperature class

Arthur Eddington’s great discovery!

Mass determines stages of star life.

Analogy: weigh the baby at birth,

and know everything that

will happen to the baby.

He also proved stars bend light

Like Einstein’s theory suggests.


Notes spectral class color temperature class

Also he suggested that star pressure balances gravity.

The outward pressure is created by heat and light.


Notes spectral class color temperature class

The Hertzsprung-Russell, or H-R Diagram allows us

to plot the stages of life of stars from their initial mass.

Lifetime of a 1 solar mass star


Notes spectral class color temperature class

Multiple Star Systems:

More than half have companions.

Most are: Binaries.


Notes spectral class color temperature class

Optical double--a false binary

--two stars not bound together, one at a greater distance.

Albireo, an optical double. 10/25/03


Notes spectral class color temperature class

Spectroscopic binary:

We don't see separate stars, just separate spectra


Notes spectral class color temperature class

Eclipsing binary--one star eclipses another.

Two dips in the light curve.


Notes spectral class color temperature class

Visual binary--actually seen as separate.

Castor in Gemini: a visual binary


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