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Support and Aspiration in the early years:. the implications of the SEN Green Paper Jan Georgeson , Research Fellow, School of Education, Plymouth University. Plan of session. P rogress of SEND Green paper (credit André Imich , SEN and Disability Professional Adviser, DfE )

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Support and aspiration in the early years

Support and Aspiration in the early years:

the implications of the SEN Green Paper

Jan Georgeson, Research Fellow,

School of Education, Plymouth University


Plan of session

Plan of session

  • Progress of

    • SEND Green paper

    • (credit André Imich, SEN and Disability Professional Adviser, DfE)

  • Implications for early years

    • Early identification

    • Working with parents

    • Interprofessional working

  • Questions to think about


Policy issues

Policy issues

What counts as a special

educational need?

Or disability?

Who pays for support?

Education – or support with developing life skills?

Safely separate – or part of the mainstream?

And who makes decisions about all this?


Support and aspiration a new approach to special educational needs and disability

Support and Aspiration: a new approach to special educational needs and disability

  • Green Paper setting out government’s thinking on SEN and disability and inviting responses to particular questions about

    • Early identification and support

    • Giving parents control

    • Learning and achieving

    • Preparing for adulthood

    • Services working together for families

  • Builds on White Paper: The Importance of Teaching;2010 Ofsted SEN and Disability Review; Lamb Inquiry.

  • Consultation period of 4 months.

  • 59 questions.

  • Timescale for implementation was early 2012…


Progression from green paper

Progression from Green Paper

March 2011: Green Paper

Support and Aspiration - A new approach to SEN and disability

May 2012 - Support and aspiration: Progress and next steps

Sept 2012 – Draft legislation on reform of provision for children and young people with SEN

Feb 2013 – Children and Families Bill Published

March 2013 – Indicative Regulations and Draft Code of Practice published

June 2013 - Evaluation of the SEND Pathfinder Programme Report


Government s vision

Government's vision

  • Children’s SEN are picked up early; support routinely put in place quickly

  • Staff have knowledge, understanding and skills to provide the right support for children who have SEN or are disabled

  • Parents know what to local school, college, LA & local services provide – don’t have to fight for it

  • Aspirations for children and young people raised through increased focus on life outcomes

  • For more complex needs, integrated assessment and single Education, Health and Care Plan from birth to 25

  • Greater control for parents and young people over services

  • (from Support and Aspiration: Next Steps: p. 4)


Support and aspiration in the early years

But ..

  • We propose to give parents a real choice of school, either a mainstream or special school.We will remove the bias towards inclusion and propose to strengthen parental choice by improving the range and diversity of schools from which parents can choose, making sure they are aware of the options available to them and by changing statutory guidance for local authorities. Parents of children with statements of SEN will be able to express a preference for any state-funded school – including special schools, Academies and Free Schools – and have their preference met unless it would not meet the needs of the child, be incompatible with the efficient education of other children, or be an inefficient use of resources. We will also prevent the unnecessary closure of special schools by giving parents and community groups the power to take them over;

    • Support and Aspiration, 2011: p. 5


Support and aspiration in the early years

  • We propose to give parents a real choice of school, either a mainstream or special school. Many parents have told us that they do not have a real choice of school that they believe is right for their child: some want a mainstream school and feel frustrated that the school they seek is not able to take the reasonable steps needed to include their child, others want their child to attend a special school but feel frustrated by not being given that choice by their local authority.

  • We will remove the bias towards inclusion and propose to strengthen parental choice by improving the range and diversity of schools from which parents can choose, making sure they are aware of the options available to them and by changing statutory guidance for local authorities.

    • Support and Aspiration, 2011: p. 17


Children and families bill key highlights

Children and Families Bill:Key Highlights

Involvement of children, young people and parents at the heart of legislation, including assessments and local offers.

More streamlined assessment process, which integrates education, health and care services, and involves children and their parents.

New 0-25 Education, Health and Care Plan, replacing Statements and Learning Difficulty Assessments, which reflects the child or young person’s aspirations for the future, as well as current needs.

9


Assessment and planning ehcps principles from pathfinders

Assessment and Planning/EHCPs: principles from Pathfinders

Assessment and planning –

  • On-going process, regular person-centred reviews.

  • ‘Tell us once’ approach to sharing information

  • Children & families at centre; involved in decisions throughout.

  • Effective co-ordination between education, health and care services.

  • Practitioners engaged and committed to single assessment and planning.

  • Keyworkingapproaches to provide a single point of contact.


Assessment and planning ehcps principles from pathfinders1

Assessment and Planning/EHCPs: principles from Pathfinders

EHCPs –

  • Person centred, focussed on outcomes, specific about provision.

  • Clear, concise, readable and accessible

  • Fulfil statutory duties and support portability across areas.

  • Support preparation for key transition points;“forward looking”

  • Specify other types of support where needed e.g. to secure paid employment and independent living.


Children and families bill key highlights1

Children and Families Bill:Key Highlights

New requirement for LA, health and care services to commission services jointly re meeting the needs of children with SEN & disabilities.

Specific Government amendments have been accepted, introducing a duty on health commissioners to provide the services set out in EHC plans.

LAs to publish a clear, transparent ‘local offer’ of services for all children with SEN, so parents can understand what is available.

New statutory protections for young people aged 16-25 in FE and a stronger focus on preparing for adulthood.

Offer of a personal budget for families and young people with a Plan, extending choice and control over their support.

12


Personal budgets key principles emerging from pathfinders

Personal Budgets: key principles emerging from pathfinders

Personal Budgets should

  • be based on clear, agreed outcomes

  • be transparent and challengeable

  • allow families and young people to manage agreed elements of the additional and individual support they need

  • be an integral part of the planning process in order to empower creative solutions

  • reflect the holistic nature of an EHCP, covering education, health and care as appropriate, where additional and individual support is needed

  • come with the support needed for parents and young people to take up and manage it

  • support and inform market development

  • allow for local flexibility.


Early years best practice emerging from se7 pathfinders

Early Years: best practice emerging from SE7 pathfinders

West Sussex, new arrangements based on early years multi-agency planning meetings.

  • single assessment tool and integrated support plan

  • building on existing multi-disciplinary work and roll-out of the Early Support approach county wide.

  • Assessment = listen and understand

    Medway carried out single coordinated assessment for younger children

  • used a video play tool to bring parents and professionals together as part of the assessment process.

  • assessment reports and education, health and care plans are clear and jargon-free

  • Case study


Categories of support

Categories of Support

  • current categories of School Action and School Action Plus (and their equivalents in early years) replaced with a single category – Additional SEN Support.

  • Focus on outcomes rather than processes.

  • For those who have SEN and who require support and/or interventions that are additional to or different from those normally provided as part of the differentiated curriculum offer and strategies.

  • New SEN Code of Practice to give clear guidance on identifying children who have SEN and on the operation of this new single category of SEN.


Categories of support1

Categories of Support

  • current categories of School Action and School Action Plus (and their equivalents in early years) replaced with a single category – Additional SEN Support. (ASS??)

  • Focus on outcomes rather than processes.

  • For those who have SEN and who require support and/or interventions that are additional to or different from those normally provided as part of the differentiated curriculum offer and strategies.

  • New SEN Code of Practice to give clear guidance on identifying children who have SEN and on the operation of this new single category of SEN.


Indicative draft the 0 25 special educational needs code of practice

Indicative Draft: The (0-25) Special Educational Needs Code of Practice

  • published in March 2013 to support the committee’s scrutiny of the SEN clauses of the bill.

  • provides practical guidance (what they should do) to professionals and families to implement statutory duties (what MUST happen)

  • a new shorter, clearer code of practice; some legislation around process lost

  • includes, for the first time, information on post-16 and the further education sector.

  • draft is indicative of the government’s thinking: nota final document.


More information

More information:

The indicative regulations

and

The draft Code

  • http://www.education.gov.uk/a00221161/children-families-bill


Timetable for reform indicative

Timetable for reform (Indicative)

  • September to December 2012 – a period of pre-legislative scrutiny, led by the Education Select Committee. Allows the provisions to be informed and improved by the views and evidence of key stakeholders, and for us to continue to learn from the experience of the Pathfinders.

  • December 2012 – Education Select Committee publishes a report of its findings.

  • Early 2013 – Improved Bill introduced into Parliament.

  • Spring 2014 - Royal Assent (subject to Parliamentary process)

  • September 2014 – reforms go live (meeting original green paper commitment to have reforms in place by 2014)

  • By 2015 - a single integrated review bringing together the Healthy Child Programme (HCP) review at two- to two and a half-years and the Early Years progress check at age two, in a coherent, integrated way.


R eforms to strengthen not remove protections

Reforms to strengthen - not remove - protections

  • Parents will not lose the legal protections offered by the current statement of special educational needs in the new system

  • Families of children with an Education, Health and Care Plan will have the option of a personal budget for their support but will not be forced to take up that option.

  • Plans to move from two school-based categories of SEN to one will not reduce the funds for schools to support children with SEN;not a number-cutting exercise.


How the reforms benefit children with autism

How the reforms benefit children with autism

  • children and young people with autism can have particularly complex needs demanding intervention from a number of different agencies. So they should particularly benefit from the more joined-up approach in the Education, Health and Care Plan.

  • Many children with autism also stand to gain from a stronger push for early identification of SEN through initiatives such as the two to two-and-a-half year health visitor review. We’re committed to creating an integrated review from 2015 combining the health visitor review and the two year old Early Years Foundation progress review.

  • In addition, young people and parents will be able to opt for a personal budget, so they can have more choice and control over the support they or their child receives.

    Edward Timpson, Parliamentary Under Secretary of State for Children and Families, April 2013


From now until enactment

From now until enactment

  • Business as usual

  • 1996 Education Act and current Code of Practice still apply

  • Pathfinder learning will support preparation for implementation

  • Transition arrangements will be clarified by DfE


Meanwhile things have been happening in early years

Meanwhile, things have been happening in Early Years ….


Programmes reports revisions

.. programmes, reports, revisions

  • Healthy Child Programme (2009 + ongoing)

    • 2 to 2 1⁄2 year health and development review

  • Allen report on Early Intervention (Jan 2011)

  • Tickell Review of EYFS (March 2011)

  • Funding for two year olds: Education Act 2011

    • finally gave parents of disadvantaged two-year-olds a new right to free early years education

  • Statutory Framework for EYFS (2012)

    • progress check at age two

    • expected provision for two year olds

  • Nutbrown review

  • More Great Childcare – ratios and qualifications


Support and aspiration in the early years

  • Early Support is a way of working, underpinned by 10 principles that aim to improve the delivery of services for disabled children, young people and their families.

  • core partner supporting the implementation of the strategy detailed in Green Paper.

  • - helps local areas implement the Government's strategy to bring together the services families need into a single assessment and planning process covering education, health and care.

  • - provides a wide range of FREE resources and training to support children, young people, families and service deliverers.

  • http://www.ncb.org.uk/earlysupport

25


Funding for two year olds

Funding for two year olds

The Education Act 2011 gives parents of disadvantaged two-year-olds a new right to free early years education and care. The duty on local authorities to secure provision is introduced in two stages:

  • in 2013 the least advantaged children

  • In September 2014 the entitlement extends to 40% of the population.


Eyfs 2012 progress check at age two

EYFS 2012Progress check at age two

2.3 When a child is aged between two and three, practitioners must review their progress, and provide parents and/or carers with a short written summary of their child’s development in the prime areas. This progress check must identify the child’s strengths, and any areas where the child’s progress is less than expected.

If there are significant emerging concerns, or an identified special educational need or disability, practitioners should develop a targeted plan to support the child’s future learning and development involving other professionals (for example, the provider’s Special Educational Needs Co- ordinator) as appropriate.


Support and aspiration in the early years

2.5 Practitioners must discuss with parents and/or carers how the summary of development can be used to support learning at home. Practitioners should encourage parents and/or carers to share information from the progress check with other relevant professionals, including their health visitor, and/or a teacher (if a child moves to school-based provision at age three). Practitioners must agree with parents and/or carers when will be the most useful point to provide a summary.


Support and aspiration in the early years

It should be provided in time to inform the Healthy Child Programme health and development review at age two whenever possible (when health visitors gather information on a child’s health and development, allowing them to identify any developmental delay and any particular support from which they think the child/family might benefit).

Taking account of information from the progress check (which reflects ongoing, regular observation of children’s development) should help ensure that health visitors can identify children’s needs accurately and fully at the health review. Providers must have the consent of parents and/or carers to share information directly with other relevant professionals, if they consider this would be helpful. (EYFS, 2012)


Aims of the progress check at age two

Aims of the progress check at age two

  •  review a child’s development in the three prime areas of the EYFS;

  •  ensure that parents have a clear picture of their child’s development;

  •  enable practitioners to understand the child’s needs and plan activities to meet them in the setting;

  •  enable parents to understand the child’s needs and, with support from practitioners, enhance development at home;

  •  note areas where a child is progressing well and identify any areas where progress is less than expected; and

  •  describe actions the provider intends to take to address any developmental concerns (including working with other professionals where appropriate).


Key principles

Key principles

The check:

  should be completed by a practitioner who knows the child well and works directly with them in the setting. This should normally be the child’s key person;

  arises from the ongoing observational assessments carried out as part of everyday practice in the setting;

  is based on skills, knowledge, understanding and behaviour that the child demonstrates consistently and independently;

  takes account of the views and contributions of parents;

  takes into account the views of other practitioners and, where relevant, other professionals working with the child;

  enables children to contribute actively to the process.


Support and aspiration in the early years

Two-year-olds 'to be given compulsory education checks’

By Graeme Paton, Education Editor The Telegraph

06 Jul 2011

All two-year-olds will be given a compulsory “progress check” under Government plans to identify children failing to develop properly at a young age.

A revised Early Years Foundation Stage framework will set out plans to identify children struggling the most at a young age. 

Toddlers in England will be assessed to find out whether they can use basic words, respond to familiar sounds, communicate their needs and play with friends.........


Two year olds in need of identification

Two year olds in need of identification

“The progress check has been introduced to enable earlier identification of development needs so that additional support can be put into place” (NCB A Know How Guide).


Two year olds in need of additional support

Two year olds in need of additional support

Children from marginalised groups,

from disadvantaged backgrounds

whose home circumstances do not offer enculturation into what it is to be a learner in the education system which they will experience

Children whose development is affected by impairment

… and the complex interaction between circumstances and individual impairment.


An interesting age

An interesting age …

  • In between categories: babies … ‘toddlers’ …. preschoolers

  • popular conception: terrible twos, tantrums

  • Difficulties emerging around age 2

    Speech and language difficulties

    Children with complex learning difficulties and disabilities (CLDD)

    Autism


Support and aspiration in the early years

Stages of speech and language development -1


Support and aspiration in the early years

Stages of speech and language development - 2


Support and aspiration in the early years

Stages of speech and language development - 3

From D. Fry (1977)


Support and aspiration in the early years

Age of acquisition for speech sounds

  • Age 2: p, m, w, n, h

  • Age 3: b, d, k, g, y (as in yes), f

  • Age 5: t, l, r, ng

  • Age 7: j (as in jump), ch, sh, th (unvoiced as in think)

  • Age 8: v, th (voiced as in the) s, z (zh is mastered later than 8)

    Sanders ( 1972) Norms for Speech Sound Mastery

    (Concerns arise when the child passes the age of acquisition and cannot produce the sound or has numerous errors making speech less than 50% understandable in conversation)


Support and aspiration in the early years

Common Phonological Processes

  • Final consonant deletion: says “ba” instead of “ball”

  • Syllable reduction: says “nana” instead of “banana”

  • Vowelization: says “ca” instead of “car”, “penso” for “pencil”

  • Gliding: says “wed” instead of “red”, “syide” for “slide”

  • Cluster Reduction: says “boom” instead of “broom”

  • Doubling: says “ho-ho” for “horse”, “wa-wa” for “water”

  • Initial Consonant Deletion says “all” instead of “ball”

  • Backing (not common): says “gog” instead of “dog”

  • Fronting: says “tat” instead of “cat”

  • Glottal Replacement: say “ba-tub” for “bathtub”

    Concern only if persist beyond age 5 - but DON’T echo these back!


Autistic spectrum disorder

Autistic Spectrum Disorder

NB It’s a spectrum that starts in the normal population

Concerns arise over ‘Triad of impairments’

  • Not looking at other people/ not interested in other children

  • Delay in talking

  • No imaginative play


Asd communication skills

ASD Communication skills

2-year-olds without autism starting to put simple words together;

Those with autism

  • have a much less diverse vocabulary

  • less babbling ability.

  • difficult for them to form consonants and combinations of words

  • less likely to use hand gestures when speaking.

    2 year-olds without autism will point at an object they want, or will follow your finger in the direction of the object you are pointing at;

  • 2-year olds with autism do not have the same ability - child is unable to make the connection between your finger and the object you are trying to draw his attention to. Instead, he will look only at your finger.


Asd behavioural skills

ASD Behavioural Skills

autistic 2-year-old tend to display specific types of behavior;

  • likes a specific routine; any disruption in this routine may cause her to become uncontrollably upset

  • may flap her hands frequently or sit and rock back and forth, sometimes for hours,

  • may demonstrate compulsive behavior


Asd socialization skills

ASD Socialization skills

  • Autistic children might want to have friends, but find making them difficult;

    • prefer to play separately

    • difficulty understanding friendly gestures

    • When given a hug, may stiffen body as if rejecting sign of affection

  • Unlikely to wave goodbye or turn head when name is called.

  • less likely to participate in games such as peek-a-boo

  • less likely to look for mummy and daddy when asked where they are.

    http://www.livestrong.com/article/26428-signs-autism-two-year-old/


Noticing the signs

Noticing the signs …

  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2v4Pt_tgIpU

  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TSfeYedNUNM

  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5Bf3VhivCCE


Children with complex learning difficulties and disabilities cldd

Children with complex learning difficulties and disabilities (CLDD)

“The disabilities of this new breed of children have previously rare causal bases—from assisted conception or premature birth, from maternal drug or alcohol abuse during pregnancy, or from medical advances, for example. [..] In 2005, McClusky and McNamara calculated that there were more than 100,000 children with severe learning disabilities (SLD), and observed that their numbers were known to be rising as a result of medical advances.”

Barry Carpenter

http://jsna.warwickshire.gov.uk/files/2012/04/Professor-Carpenter-Children-with-complex-learning-disabilities.pdf


Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder

Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder

  • newly acknowledged group of learners needing specialisedintervention

  • As many as one in 100 children ranging across the learning disability spectrum from mild to profound (BMA 2007).

  • Neuroscience shows that, with FASD, the brain’s parietal lobe can be significantly reduced (area controls numeracy and mathematical computation; Goswami, 2004)


Fas signs and symptoms

FAS Signs and Symptoms

  • low birth weight

  • small head circumference

  • failure to thrive

  • developmental delay

  • organ dysfunction

  • facial abnormalities, including smaller eye openings, flattened cheekbones, indistinct philtrum (an underdeveloped groove between the nose and the upper lip)

  • epilepsy


Fas signs and symptoms1

FAS Signs and Symptoms

  • poor coordination/fine motor skills

  • poor socialization skills, such as difficulty building and maintaining friendships and relating to groups

  • lack of imagination or curiosity

  • learning difficulties, including poor memory, inability to understand concepts such as time and money, poor language comprehension, poor problem-solving skills

  • behavioural problems, including hyperactivity, inability to concentrate, social withdrawal, stubbornness, impulsiveness, and anxiety


Solution engagement for learning

Solution? “Engagement for learning”

  • For students with disabilities, engagement (participation of the child in learning) is the single best predictor of successful learning (egBulgren and Carta, 1993; Iovannone et al, 2003).

  • As teachers, we must penetrate the mask of disengagement generated by many children with CLDD. As ever, we must see beyond the disturbed and disturbing behaviour, beyond the tubes and medical equipment, beyond the physical apparatus to the child as a learner.

  • Our work must be to transform these children into active learners by releasing their motivation, unlocking their curiosity and increasing their participation. Key to this are relationship processes—warmth, sensitivity and responsiveness. From there the child becomes engaged, and their personalised learning journey begins.


What does personalised learning look like for a child with cldd

What does personalised learning look like for a child with CLDD?

David Hargreaves (2006) writes:

  • Personalising learning demands that schools transform their responses to the learner from the largely standardised to the profoundly personalised.... If students are to engage in deeper learning, they will need new forms of enriched support.

  • It is a process which will enable us to mould the learning experience directly around the child with CLDD. To do this we have to map the learning needs and pathways of that child.

  • This is on a range of levels—caring for their social and mental health needs and their educational needs. Sometimes this means we need to decide what is of overriding importance at any given time (ie deciding what their most important need is, and wrapping the curriculum around that need).


And teaching and learning partnerships

And teaching and learning partnerships

  • Often we do not yet know the learning needs and pathways for children with CLDD. We need to reach across professional boundaries to illuminate our existing knowledge, and achieve pedagogical reconciliation.

  • Collaborative relationships—with families, with professionals from other disciplines such as health, psychology, speech and language therapy, occupational therapy —provide huge benefits for the child.

  • ‘Person Centred Planning’ (Department of Health, 2001) and the ‘Team Around the Child’ (Limbrick, 2005) are excellent models. Shared goals and priority targets mean that intervention becomes focused, cumulative and achievable for all.


Early intervention and 2 year olds

Early intervention and 2 year olds

Certain impairments become apparent in third year of life

  • Recommended response

    • Engage children in learning

    • Personalize learning

    • Involve parents and other professionals

    • = just good early years practice??

      But extreme care is needed so that

  • normal two year old behaviour is not pathologised

  • Focus not on changing the child - but changing the environment

    And who is it who will be involved in all this in the preschool setting??


Support and aspiration in the early years

“The big issue for people working with these 'vulnerable' two year olds is that often the setting - typically a pre school geared up for children 3+ - has no resources or routines that suit younger children. Most of these children who are 'vulnerable' will have social and therefore communication needs”.

Michael Jones (ECAT consultant –personal correspondence )


Support and aspiration in the early years

‘Practitioners with the least experience and qualifications are often placed in the baby rooms of day care and nursery settings with the most qualified and experienced practitioners working with children closer to starting school.’

(Goouch and Powell, 2010)


Review of early education and childcare qualifications interim report

REVIEW OF EARLY EDUCATION AND CHILDCARE QUALIFICATIONS: INTERIM REPORT

‘The ‘hair or care’ stereotype still exists for many considering a course in the early years; …. It must be a cause for concern that early years courses are often the easiest to enrol on and the courses that the students with the poorest academic records are sometimes steered towards.’

(Nutbrown, 2012, p9)


How does learning about working with young children happen

How does learning about working with young children happen?

‘I worked alongside Sarah for one year and then another girl came in and we worked together just with the babies and under two’s for a couple of years.I sort of learnt as I went along really.’

(senior room leader)

‘The baby team always felt a bit isolated and their work wasn’t as important as the rest of the nursery. (manager)


Working with other agencies research

Working with other agencies - research

Research Questions

  • What are practitioners’ experiences of interprofessional working?

  • What are practitioners’ training needs/preferences for interprofessional working?

  • How confident do EYPs feel about leading interprofessional practice?

  • How do practitioners influence and implement aspects of interprofessional practice with regard to the children in their care?

  • How do children experience and participate in aspects of interprofessional practice in early years settings?


Findings

Findings

  • Staff in Children’s Centres were generally more positive and more confident

  • Staff in private day nurseries and community preschools generally less positive & least confident

  • But picture is complex; wide range of comments within each setting type

  • CONTEXT: Where you are influences what you can do (structural arrangements, culture, history)

  • INTERPERSONAL RELATIONS : Who you are can influence how you work within limitations (personal action potency within constellations; funds of personal action potency within teams

  • CHILDREN’S PARTICIPATION: children shape interprofessionalpractice

  • Payler and Georgeson 2013


Some questions to think about

Some questions to think about

  • How can we best support practitioners to play their part in early identification?

  • How well equipped are practitioners working with two year olds for identification and reporting to parents? Or working with Health Visitors?

  • How will relationships with parents be affected by personalised budgets? Or by the two year old check?

  • Should we be preparing children early for self-advocacy later?


Selected references

Selected References

  • Goouch, K. and Powell, S. (2011) The Baby Room Project : TACTYC reflections paper available at http://www.tactyc.org.uk/reflections-papers.asp

  • Holland, D. and Lave, J. (2009) Social Practice Theory and the historical production of persons Actio : An International Journal of Human Activity Theory 2 p 1-15

  • Howell, K. Georgeson, J. & Wickett, K. (2012) Without Walls. Nursery World Jan 10th 2012. pp20-22

  • Lave, J and Wenger, E. (1991) Situated learning: legitimate peripheral participation. New York: Cambridge Unieristy Press

  • Nutbrown, C. (2012) Review of Early Education and Childcare Qualifications: Interim Report, available at www.education.gov.uk/nutbrownreview

  • Payler, JK. & Georgeson, JM.  (2013)  'Personal action potency: early years practitioners participating in interprofessional practice in early years settings' International Journal of Early Years Education  21  (1),  pp 39 - 55

  • Penn, H (1997) Comparing Nurseries: Staff and Children in Italy, Spain and the UK, London: Paul Chapman Publishing


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