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Natural Gas 101 CNG vs LNG what is the difference?. Presented by: Cal Macy Project Director Pete Sparks Project Coordinator. Why study natural gas? None of my friends drive one…. Presented by: Cal Macy -Long Beach City College. ADVANCED TRANSPORTATION TECHNOLOGY CENTER.

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Presented by cal macy project director pete sparks project coordinator

Natural Gas 101

CNG vs LNG what is the difference?

Presented by: Cal Macy Project DirectorPete Sparks Project Coordinator


Why study natural gas none of my friends drive one

Why study natural gas?None of my friends drive one….

  • Presented by:

    • Cal Macy -Long Beach City College

ADVANCED TRANSPORTATIONTECHNOLOGY CENTER


Green port program

Green Port Program

  • Ports of LB and LA are going green

ATTE has been teaching “green” before it was a term


Presented by cal macy project director pete sparks project coordinator

What will be the propulsion for the new Millennium??

NGV

Fuel Cell

Heavy-Duty

Cng/Lng

CNG

Hybrid

Motor

NGV

Natural

Gas

Vehicle

NGV

Natural

Gas

Vehicle

Direct

Injection

FCEV

Fuel Cell

EV

Gaseous/ alcohol based fuels

Common

Rail Direct

Injection

Series/

parallel

Hybrid

Lean

Burn

EV

Electric

Vehicles

Emerging

Alternative

Energies

Hybrid

Cars

Diesel

Engines

Gasoline

Engines

  • Natural gas is today’s key to a healthier tomorrow


Presented by cal macy project director pete sparks project coordinator

What will be the propulsion for the new Millennium??

Range and Reliability are the two biggest challenges for Alternative Fuels

Cost of fuel and availability are the

operator’s concerns


Presented by cal macy project director pete sparks project coordinator

Where can I get CNG/LNG for my car or truck?

Clean Energy announced plans to install LNG/CNG

fueling stations across the nation at existing Pilot/Flying J Truck Stops in 33 states

Phase 1

150

new stations

70 in 2012

80 in 2013

$2.79/DGE LB 1/25/2012

  • Natural gas is today’s key to a healthier tomorrow


Presented by cal macy project director pete sparks project coordinator

Where can I get

my car or truck serviced?

We can train the next generation of fleet technicians

The ATTE Centers have trained over 5000 fleet technicians from all over the US, Canada, and Mexico


Advanced transportation technology centers

ADVANCED TRANSPORTATIONTECHNOLOGY CENTERS

ALTERNATIVEFUELSTRAINING PROGRAMS


Advanced transportation technology centers1

ADVANCED TRANSPORTATIONTECHNOLOGY CENTERS

  • Long Beach was the first Clean City in California

    • LBCC provided initial CNG & LNG Training for City fleets

  • 10 ATT Centers were established in 1993


Advanced transportation technology centers2

ADVANCED TRANSPORTATIONTECHNOLOGY CENTERS

ATTE is a Consortium of 8 Regional Colleges Statewide

Providing Alternative Fuels Training since 1995

ATTE is the Statewide Training Solution

We make the complicated Simple!


Computerized engine management

Computerized Engine Management

Cummins John Deere Detroit Caterpillar

  • We have decades of experience on CEM systems


Electronic engine fuel management systems

Electronic Engine Fuel Management Systems

DETROIT DIESEL

DDEC& GFI SYSTEMS

  • ATT provided training for the 1996 Olympics in Atlanta


Presented by cal macy project director pete sparks project coordinator

Customized Training Programs:

In-Center seminars held in a manufacturer-style

classroom environment with an attached lab


Presented by cal macy project director pete sparks project coordinator

Customized Training Programs:

OEM trainers for Kenworth & Peterbilt LNG drayage trucks

We WROTE the program!!


Presented by cal macy project director pete sparks project coordinator

Live Engine Training on CNG & LNG Demonstrators:

  • Hands-on Training with Heavy Duty electronics training engines

    • Cummins ISL G CNG/LNG

    • Cummins/Westport GX LNG

    • DDEC IV series 50/60G

    • John Deere

We WROTE the programs!!


Natural gas safety

Natural Gas Safety

  • Cylinder Safety Inspection

  • We stress safety & regulations


Natural gas properties

Natural Gas Properties

  • Odorless

    • Odorant (Ethyl Mercaptan) added

  • Colorless

  • Lighter than air

  • Flammability range: 5-15%

    • Compare with: diesel 1-6%, propane 2.2-9.5%, hydrogen 4.1-74%

  • High auto-ignition temperature

    • 900-1170°F

  • Non-toxic

    • Displaces oxygen


Natural gas vehicle storage

Natural Gas Vehicle Storage

  • Compressed Natural Gas: CNG

    • Up to 3600- 5000 psi

    • High pressure storage vessel

      • 200:1 STP storage volume

  • Liquefied Natural Gas: LNG

    • Cryogenic temperatures (-250°F) up to 230 psi

    • Well insulated storage vessel

      • 600:1 STP storage volume


Compressed natural gas

Compressed Natural Gas

Considerations

  • Fueling infrastructure

    • Strong

  • Engine type

    • SI or dual fuel

  • Vehicle range

  • Cylinder quantity and configuration

  • Fast fill or slow fill


Compressed natural gas1

Compressed Natural Gas

  • High pressure gas cylinders

    • Flexible sizes and configurations

    • Light weight (relative to LNG tanks)

  • Safety

    • Extreme high pressures

    • Frequent CNG system inspections


Cylinder type 1

Cylinder Type 1

All steel or aluminum construction

100% pressure is held by the metal

Vulnerable to rust and corrosion

Type 1 Cascade


Cylinder type 2

Cylinder Type 2

Hoop-wrapped aluminum or steel

55% pressure is held by metal, 45% is held by the wrap

Vulnerable to corrosion and wrap damage


Cylinder type 3

Cylinder Type 3

Fully wrapped aluminum

80% pressure is held by the wrap, 20% is held by the metal

Vulnerable to cuts and abrasion


Cylinder type 4

Cylinder Type 4

All composite cylinder with a plastic liner

100% pressure is held by composite wrap

Liner sealed to metal domes used for valve threads

Light weight, vulnerable to impact & cuts


Liquefied natural gas

Liquefied Natural Gas

Considerations

  • Fueling infrastructure

    • In development

    • Mobile units available

  • Engine type

    • HPDI, SI or duel fuel

  • Vehicle range

  • LNG tank weight and size

  • Vehicle utilization should be frequent


Liquefied natural gas1

Liquefied Natural Gas

  • Cryogenic storage tank

  • Somewhat limited configurations and sizes

  • Safety

    • Extreme cold temperature

      • Down to - 250°F

    • Pressures up to 230 psi

    • Robust design


Liquefied natural gas tanks

Liquefied Natural Gas Tanks

  • Stainless steel construction

  • Vacuum insulation

  • Specialized valves and components

  • Sizing typically 50- 150 gallons

  • Two distinct types

    • Integrated LNG pump and vaporizer

    • Pressure flow with external vaporizer


Liquefied natural gas tanks1

Liquefied Natural Gas Tanks

  • Integrated LNG pump and vaporizer

    • Utilization of any temperature LNG

    • Up to 5000 psi CNG output

      • Electronically regulated

    • HPDI equipped engines


Liquefied natural gas tanks2

Liquefied Natural Gas Tanks

  • Pressure flow with external vaporizer

    • Requires utilization of “warm” LNG

    • Up to tank pressure output

      • < 230 psi

      • Mechanical regulation

    • SI or dual fuel equipped engines


Natural gas engines

Natural Gas Engines

  • Westport HD15

  • CWI ISL G

  • CWI ISX12 G

  • Other engines/ options

    • John Deere

    • Detroit Diesel

    • CAP dual fuel


Westport hd15 engine

Westport HD15 Engine

  • 15 liter compression ignition

  • Direct injection diesel pilot

  • Up to 475 HP, 1750 lb-ft torque

  • Active emissions aftertreatment system


Cwi isl g engine

CWI ISL G Engine

  • 8.9 liter spark ignition

  • Mass air/ gas electronic fuel injection

  • Up to 320 HP, 1000 lb-ft torque

  • Passive three way catalyst emissions system


Cwi isx12 g engine

CWI ISX12 G Engine

12 liter spark ignition

Mass air/ gas electronic fuel injection

Up to 400 HP, 1450 lb-ft torque

Passive three way catalyst emissions system


How does natural gas work in the engine

How does Natural Gas work in the Engine?


Operating pressures and safety

Operating Pressures and Safety

Non-toxic

Lighter than air

CNG can displace oxygen

CNG highly flammable?

Must be contained to be dangerous

Window of flammability very narrow

No open flames in the shop

Safest fuel of all other fuels

Pressure in system must be respected


Major components of a compressed natural gas system

Major Components of a Compressed Natural Gas System


Fill valve and coalescent filter

Fill Valve and Coalescent Filter

  • NGV1 Fuel fill device needs to match pressure of cylinder

  • Must have dust cap installed after filling vehicle

  • Coalescing filter can be on fill inlet or supply line


One way check valve

One-Way Check Valve

  • Allows fuel to flow in one direction only

  • Usually on fill line to prevent leakage in case of drive-away


Fuel storage cylinders

Fuel Storage Cylinders

  • 3000 PSI

  • Type 4

  • 3600 PSI

  • Type 2

  • High pressure storage

  • 4 different types available

  • Several pressures available

  • Should all be matching pressure


Cylinder shut off valve

Cylinder Shut-Off Valve

  • Isolates cylinder for servicing

  • Special tool needed to open dead electronic valves

  • Destroys seals in valve

  • Caution: pressure may still be present!


Pressure relief device prd

Pressure Relief Device (PRD)

  • Releases in case of excessive heat or pressure

  • Mounted on cylinder IN DIRECT PRESSURE

  • One-time failure--- vented to outside of vehicle

  • Cannot be removed and reused on another cylinder

  • Special design for type 4—all composite cylinders


Manual shut off valve quarter turn

Manual Shut-Off Valve(Quarter Turn)

  • Shuts off fuel to engine compartment

  • Emergency shut-off accessible from outside


Stainless steel fuel lines

Stainless Steel Fuel Lines

  • Seamless Stainless Steel Lines

  • Fittings and lines must be rated to withstand

  • 3 times their system pressure

  • Relief loops to prevent vibration failures

  • Some vehicles use flexible lines with stainless weave


Pressure regulator s

Pressure Regulator(s)

  • Reduces cylinder pressure to system operating pressure

  • May have two regulators to drop pressure in stages

  • Pressure typically 120 psi or less depending upon system


Shut off valves lock offs

Shut off Valves (Lock-Offs)

Prevents fuel flow unless engine RPM is present

Controlled by PCM


Presented by cal macy project director pete sparks project coordinator

Fuel Delivery to Engine

High pressure direct injection

Cummins ISL G Fuel Control Valve

Introduces fuel to intake air stream

Westport GX injector


Powerplant fueling options

Powerplant & Fueling Options

Cummins/Westport ISL-G Natural Gas Engine

Cummins/Westport ISX12-G Natural Gas Engine

Westport GX 15 liter Diesel/Natural Gas Hybrid Engine


Powerplant fueling options1

Powerplant & Fueling Options

ISL-G 8.9L Natural Gas Engine


Powerplant fueling options2

Powerplant & Fueling Options

Cummins/Westport ISL-G

Type - 4-cycle, spark-ignited, inline 6-cylinder, turbocharged

8.9 Liter, coil on plug ignition (300v primary)

Compressed Natural Gas (CNG – 3600psi) or Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG)

Dedicated & Optimized for natural gas fuel (105 parameters)

Meets EPA and CARB 2010 emission requirements

EGR and Catalyst (stoiciometric)

Advertised Horsepower 250–320 hp

Peak Torque 660–1,000 lb-ft

PM’s differ from diesel


Powerplant fueling options3

Powerplant & Fueling Options

ISX12-G 11.9L Natural Gas Engine


Powerplant fueling options4

Powerplant & Fueling Options

Cummins/Westport ISX12-G

Type - 4-cycle, spark-ignited, inline 6-cylinder, turbocharged

11.9 Liter Compressed Natural Gas (CNG – 3600psi) or Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG)

Dedicated & Optimized for natural gas fuel (stoiciometric)

Meets EPA and CARB 2010 emission requirements

Advertised Horsepower 330 – 400 hp

Peak Torque 1150 – 1450 lb-ft

First time available engine braking option

Available early 2013


Powerplant fueling options5

Powerplant & Fueling Options

  • LNG tank and pump

  • (chassis mounted)

  • Fuel injectors

  • (under valve cover)

  • Fuel conditioningmodule

  • Common-rail

  • diesel

  • fuel pump

  • Hydraulic

  • pump (drives LNG Pump)

  • Control units

  • (firewall mounted)

Westport GX 15 liter HPDI Diesel/NG Engine


Powerplant fueling options6

Powerplant & Fueling Options

Westport GX HPDI Diesel/NG Hybrid

Type - 4-cycle, pilot ignition, inline 6-cylinder, turbocharged

15 Liter

Proprietary Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) design

Dedicated & Optimized for natural gas fuel

Meets EPA and CARB 2010 emission requirements

Advertised Horsepower 400 – 475 hp

Peak Torque 1450 – 1750 lb-ft

Proven reliability since 2006

Requires PM trap & SCR (urea) injection for EPA/CARB 2010


What regulations should i be training my students to be aware of

What Regulations Should I Be Training my students to be aware of?


Presented by cal macy project director pete sparks project coordinator

Regulations & Guidelines for CNG & LNG Vehicle Operation and Maintenance

  • NFPA 52

    -Covers installations of cylinders and components

  • CHP Title 13

    -Covers state certification of installations and vehicles

  • CGA 6.4

    -Covers visual inspection and qualifications of inspectors

  • ANSI/NGV-2/FMVSS 304

    -Covers design, construction and testing of new cylinders

  • Manufacture’s Printed Guidelines

    -Covers inspection, repair and condemnation


Nfpa 52 vehicle installation guidelines

NFPA 52 Vehicle Installation Guidelines

  • Covers proper installation and

    system safety

  • Hard copy or downloadable

  • “Industry standard”

  • California makes it a law

  • OEM’s adhere to it

  • Fire Dept. recognized

  • Updated every few years

    - www.nfpa.org


Nfpa 52 sections

NFPA 52 Sections

Administration

Referenced Publications

Definitions

General CNG Requirements & Equipment Qualifications

General GH2 Requirements & Equipment Qualifications

CNG Engine Fuel Systems

Service & Maintenance of GH2 Engine Fuels Systems

CNG Compression, Gas Processing, Storage, and Dispensing Systems

  • GH2 Compression, Gas processing, Storage, Dispensing

  • CNG Residential Fueling Facilities

  • LNG Engine Fuel Systems

  • LNG Fueling Facilities

  • LH2 Fueling Facilities

  • LNG Fire Protection

  • Installation Requirements for ASME Tanks for LNG

  • LNG and CNG on Commercial Marine Vessels and Pleasure Craft


Cga 6 4 inspection procedures

CGA 6.4Inspection Procedures

Inspection procedures and damage

assessment

Criteria for the acceptance or

rejection of containers

Qualifications of inspectors


Presented by cal macy project director pete sparks project coordinator

Recommended minimum: inspection every 3 or 36,000 miles for life of container

Defines 3 levels of damage and appropriate

actions for each

Provides guidance on what the inspector must

look for and how to make service/disposal

determinations

Manufacturer’s instructions take precedence

Proper documentation and labels required

  • CGA 6.4Inspection Procedures


Presented by cal macy project director pete sparks project coordinator

  • CGA 6.4Inspection Procedures

In addition, CGA 6.4 will provide what you need to know about:

  • Brackets, straps, and mounting systems as recommended by the

    container manufacturer

  • Labeling information

  • Appropriate inspection equipment

Compressed Gas Association, Inc.

4221 Walney Road, 5th Floor

Chantilly, VA 20151

703-788-2700

www.cganet.com

Hard copy or downloadable


Presented by cal macy project director pete sparks project coordinator

Facility Considerations

Local laws and regulations vary

  • NO Open flames or spark emitting equipment

  • Sealed lighting

  • Ventilation requirements

  • Methane detectors and alarms

Each facility should obtain an Engineering survey by a company specializing in CNG facilities to determine what is needed at that location


Presented by cal macy project director pete sparks project coordinator

Facility Considerations

  • Local laws and regulations vary

  • Each facility should obtain an Engineering survey by a company specializing in CNG facilities to determine what is needed at that location


Presented by cal macy project director pete sparks project coordinator

Regulations & Guidelines for CNG & LNG Vehicle Operation and Maintenance

  • Know the codes

  • Consult the experts

    Questions? Contact one of the Advanced Transportation Technology & Energy Centers statewide

    THANK YOU


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