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IS3120 Network Communications Infrastructure Unit 4 IP Addressing Schema Designs for a Layer 2/Layer 3 IP Network Infrastructure. Learning Objective. Translate IPv4 and IPv6 IP addressing schemas and perform logical IP addressing schema designs. Key Concepts. IPv4 addressing structure

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IS3120 Network Communications Infrastructure

Unit 4

IP Addressing Schema Designs for a Layer 2/Layer 3 IP Network Infrastructure

learning objective
Learning Objective
  • Translate IPv4 and IPv6 IP addressing schemas and perform logical IP addressing schema designs.
key concepts
Key Concepts
  • IPv4 addressing structure
  • IPv6 addressing structure
  • Alignment of subnet mask addressing to appropriate number of IP subnetworks
  • IP addressing schema design using IPv4 for Layer 2 and Layer 3 networking
  • IP addressing schema design using IPv6 for Layer 2 and Layer 3 networking
ipv4 address structure
IPv4: Address Structure
  • 32-bit addresses (4 bytes)
  • Usually displayed in dot notation
    • 4 separate 8-bit numbers (octets)
    • Octets separated by periods
    • Octet value is between 0 and 255
    • Example: 192.168.0.1
  • IPv4 networks can be classful or classless
ipv4 classful network architecture
IPv4: Classful Network Architecture
  • IP addresses originally organized into five classes: A, B, C, D, and E
  • A, B, and C used for networks
  • Each class restricted to a particular IP address range
  • Range based on number of nodes needed
  • Maximum number of 4,294,967,296 addresses (232)
ipv4 cidr
IPv4: CIDR
  • Replacement for classful network architecture (1993)
  • Temporary solution for IP address shortage
  • Networks are split into groups of IP addresses called CIDR blocks
ipv4 private addresses
IPv4: Private Addresses
  • Not routable through public routers
  • Network Address Translation (NAT) maps internal addresses to public routable addresses
ipv6 address structure
IPv6: Address Structure
  • 128 bit addresses
    • First 64 bits identify network
    • Last 64 bits identify host (based on MAC address)
  • Maximum number of 2128addresses (> 340 undecillion)

1 undecillion = 1,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000

ipv6 address notation
IPv6: Address Notation
  • 8 groups of 4 hexadecimal numbers
ipv6 address compression
IPv6: Address Compression
  • Drop leading 0s in each group

2001:0db8:0000:0000:0000:0053:0000:0004

becomes

2001:db8:0:0:0:53:0:4

  • Replace the first group of 0s with ::

2001:0db8:0000:0000:0000:0053:0000:0004

becomes

2001:db8::53:0:4

  • Only one set of :: can exist in an address
ipv6 network prefix
IPv6: Network Prefix
  • Address block 2001:db8::/32
    • Range: 2001:db8:: to 2001:0db8:ffff:ffff:ffff:ffff:ffff:ffff
  • Any IP address sharing the same initial 32 bits is in the same Internet network, leaving 32 bits for further sub-netting.
ipv6 unicast addressing
IPv6: Unicast Addressing
  • Single device
  • Similar to IPv4 CIDR
  • Global or local (public or private)
  • Can contain embedded IPv4 addresses
    • Network prefix set to 0
    • ::FFFF:192.168.0.4
ipv6 global versus local unicast
IPv6: Global versus Local Unicast
  • Interfaces in IPv6 have at least two addresses:
ipv6 unicast host identifier
IPv6: Unicast Host Identifier
  • Calculated from interface’s 48-bit MAC address
  • MAC is assigned by manufacturer:

1c:6f:65:35:85:6d

00011100 01101111 01100101 00110101 10000101 01101101

  • EUI-64 inserts ff:fe as the middle 16 bits:

1c:6f:65:ff:fe:35:85:6d

00011100 01101111 01100101 1111111111111110 00110101 10000101 01101101

  • If the host address is globally unique the 7th bit is inverted:

1e:6f:65:ff:fe:35:85:6d

00011110 01101111 01100101 11111111 11111110 00110101 10000101 01101101

  • Any IP address sharing the same initial 32 bits is in the same Internet network, leaving 32 bits for sub-netting.
ipv6 multicast assignment
IPv6: Multicast Assignment
  • Interfaces in IPv6 have at least two multicast assignments:
    • Solicited-node
      • Used to validate host identifier uniqueness
      • Announces interface to neighbors
    • All-hosts
      • Communicate with all nodes within a LAN segment
ipv6 multicast addressing1
IPv6: Multicast Addressing

Example:

  • Solicited-node addresses
    • Translated from a node’s unicast address
ipv6 reserved multicast addresses
IPv6: Reserved Multicast Addresses
  • ff02::1 is all nodes
  • ff02::2 is all routers
  • ff02::101 is all Network Time Protocol (NTP) servers
  • ff02::fb is all multicast DNS servers
ipv6 anycast addressing
IPv6: Anycast Addressing
  • New to IPv6, no IPv4 equivalent
  • Can be translated from unicast address
    • Change node identifier bits to all 0s or all 1s except the last 7 bits
  • Associated with a unique identifier
  • Each LAN segment can have 126 unique anycast IDs
ipv6 anycast addressing1
IPv6: Anycast Addressing
  • Node address of all 0s
    • Subnet-router communications
    • Takes the place of a default gateway in IPv4
  • Node address of 1s except the last 7 bits
    • 0x00 (0000000) through 0x7d (0111101) may be designated Anycast identifiers
    • 0x7e (0111110) and 0x7f (0111111) are reserved
elements of an ipv4 address schema
Elements of an IPv4 Address Schema
  • Network ID (aka network address)
    • First address of the block
  • Subnet mask
  • Broadcast address
    • Last address of the block
  • If multiple subnets
    • Each subnet has its own network ID and broadcast address
ipv4 schema determine network
IPv4Schema: Determine Network
  • How many hosts (nodes)?
    • Workstations
    • Servers
    • Other
  • Number of nodes determines network class
ipv4 schema subnets
IPv4Schema: Subnets
  • How many subnets are needed?
    • Security
    • Services
    • Organizational structure
  • How many hosts for eachsubnet?
  • # of hosts per subnetdetermines subnet mask
elements of an ipv6 addressing schema
Elements of an IPv6 Addressing Schema
  • Internetworking is generally automatic
    • Assignment of unicast host identifiers
    • Network and gateway mapping through Neighbor Discovery
  • Link-local addressing is manual or automatic
  • Configurable scopes
    • Admin Level
    • Site Level (deprecated)
    • Organization Level
types of ipv6 addresses
Types of IPv6 Addresses
  • Enclose IPv6 addresses in brackets [] to specify a particular port
  • Example:telnet [201:0db8::53:0:4]:23 for port 23
ipv6 schema subnets support business needs
IPv6 Schema: Subnets Support Business Needs
  • Segmentation across routers to limit network congestion on critical subnets
  • Regulatory mandates requiring transport isolation of certain data categories
  • Logical segmentation of neighbor nodes based on disparate facility locations
  • Isolation for each client or function
ipv6 schema subnetting
IPv6 Schema: Subnetting
  • Classless
  • Notation is similar to IPv4 CIDR addressing notation.
  • Example: 2001:0db8:0:0:0:53:0:4/16
    • Defines 2001 (the first 16 bits) as the network address
    • Subnets of 2112 node addresses each
  • Further subnetting is possible (hierarchical)
ipv6 subnet segmentation
IPv6: Subnet Segmentation
  • Each Provider assigned a /32 network (65536 /48 Subscriber subnets)
  • A Subscriber assigned a /48 subnet (65536 /64 LAN segments)
  • A single /64 LAN segment is 264 nodes
  • Further segmentation administratively assigned through Admin-, Site-, and Organizational-scope specification
role of ip addressing in network routing
Role of IP Addressing in Network Routing
  • IP addressing is based on hosts and networks
  • End hosts are assigned IP addresses
  • Subnets of IP host addresses are divided and grouped together
  • IP address are used to route packets and are essential to getting information to the proper destination
ipv4 and ipv6 in context
IPv4 and IPv6 in Context
  • Most devices still using IPv4
  • Compatibility with IPv6 networking is mainly a software or firmware issue
  • American Registry for Internet Numbers (ARIN) suggests that all Internet servers be prepared to serve IPv6-only clients by January 2012
rationale
Rationale
  • The number of network-enabled devices has grown beyond IPv4’s address capacity.
  • IPv6 provides a more globally equitable distribution of network addresses than the legacy IPv4 system which provides more addresses to early-adopters (US universities) than to many governments elsewhere in the world.
summary
Summary
  • In this presentation, the following were covered:
    • IPv4 addressing
    • Classful and classless networking (IPv4)
    • IPv6 addressing
    • IPv4 address schema design
    • IPv6 address schema design
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