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The Civil War . 1861-1865. A Ride for Liberty-The Fugitive Slaves by Eastman Johnson. The Election of 1860. Charleston Democratic Convention 2/3rds rule and southern opposition to Stephen A. Douglas keep Democrats from selecting nominee Democrats split at Baltimore Convention

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The civil war

The Civil War

1861-1865

A Ride for Liberty-The Fugitive Slaves by Eastman Johnson


The election of 1860
The Election of 1860

  • Charleston Democratic Convention

    • 2/3rds rule and southern opposition to Stephen A. Douglas keep Democrats from selecting nominee

  • Democrats split at Baltimore Convention

    • Southern Rights Democratic Party nominates John C. Breckinridge

    • Regular Democrats go with Douglas

  • Constitutional Union Party

    • John Bell


1858 debates house divided speech
1858 Debates: “House Divided” Speech

  • A house divided against itself cannot stand. I believe this government cannot endure, permanently, half slave and half free. I do not expect the Union to be dissolved — I do not expect the house to fall — but I do expect it will cease to be divided. It will become all one thing or all the other. Either the opponents of slavery will arrest the further spread of it, and place it where the public mind shall rest in the belief that it is in the course of ultimate extinction; or its advocates will push it forward, till it shall become alike lawful in all the States, old as well as new — North as well as South.


The republicans nominate lincoln

Republicans needed 2 out of Pennsylvania, Illinois, and Indiana

William H. Seward

“Higher law” speech (1850)

“Irrepressible Conflict” (1858)

Abraham Lincoln

Republican platform

Exclusion of slavery from territories

Higher tariffs

Homestead Act

Federal aid for internal improvements

The Republicans Nominate Lincoln


Southern fears
Southern Fears Indiana

  • “Black Republicanism”

  • Implications for the South if Lincoln wins

  • Results

    • Lincoln received less than 40% of popular vote

    • Won electoral college by substantial margin



The war begins
The War Begins Indiana

  • Lincoln inaugurated in March 1861 as the first Republican president

  • Assured southerners that he would not interfere in slavery.

  • Warned that no state had the right to break up the Union.


Compromise proposals
Compromise Proposals Indiana

  • John J. Crittenden

    • Crittenden Compromise

    • Lincoln opposed

  • “peace convention” – hope for the 8 remaining slave states to reject secession

  • None of the secessionist states would consider a compromise


Fort sumter
Fort Sumter Indiana

  • Located in the harbor of Charleston, it was cut off from supplies by the South.

  • Lincoln announced he would send supplies.

  • South fired upon the fort on April 12, 1861 and it surrendered to the South after 2 days.



Use of executive power
Use of Executive Power Indiana

  • Extended use of executive powers and powers as commander in chief without approval from Congress.

  • Called for 75,000 volunteers to put down the “insurrection” in the South.

  • Authorized spending for the war.

  • Suspended the privilege of the writ of habeas corpus.


Secession of the upper south
Secession of the Upper South Indiana

  • Before Fort Sumter, only 7 states had seceded.

  • VA, NC, TN, and AR only seceded after it became clear Lincoln would use force.

  • Capital: Richmond


The border states
The Border States Indiana

  • Delaware firmly union

  • Northern occupation of Maryland

  • Missouri

    • “bushwhackers” vs. “jayhawkers”

  • Unionists win elections in Kentucky and Maryland


Secession map
Secession Map Indiana


Keeping the border states in the union
Keeping the Border States in the Union Indiana

  • DE, MD, MO, and KY remained in the Union because of Union sentiment and the use of troops in these areas.

  • Guerrilla forces were active throughout the war.

  • Their loss would have increased the Confederacy’s population by 50 percent and hurt the North’s military position.


The creation of west virginia
The Creation of West Virginia Indiana

  • Fifth Union border state

  • Delegates from western part of Virginia had voted against secession

    • Wanted to break away from state of Virginia

  • West Virginia became a new state and entered the Union, 1863


The confederate states of america
The Confederate States of America Indiana

  • modeled after the U.S. Constitution

  • Non-successive 6 year term for the presidency

  • presidential item veto

  • Jefferson Davis attempted to increase presidential powers, but failed.

  • “States’ rights” turned into a problem for the South.


Mobilizing for war
Mobilizing for War Indiana

  • “citizen soldiers”

  • Four-fifths of soldiers on both sides were volunteers, despite both sides passing conscription acts

  • Not professionally trained soldiers

    • Egalitarian attitudes

    • Lacking in discipline


The balance sheet of war
The Balance Sheet of War Indiana

  • Enlistment of Black soldiers

    • Union allowed it

    • Confederacy did not, until the end of the war

  • Advantages:

    • North much greater population

    • Northern economic superiority

    • Southern military prowess

  • Neither side anticipated length or intensity of the Civil War


Strategy and morale
Strategy and Morale Indiana

  • Union faced vast geographic territory of the South to invade and conquer

  • Confederacy required withstanding and outlasting Northern efforts

  • Confederacy had superior morale


Weapons and tactics
Weapons and Tactics Indiana

  • Rifles

  • “minié ball”

    • Rapid load and fire

    • Greater accuracy


Weapons used
Weapons used Indiana


Logistics
Logistics Indiana

  • Civil War considered 1st modern logistical war

    • Railroads, steam-powered ships, telegraph

    • Vulnerable communications and supply lines

    • Inland: dependence on animal-powered transport

      • Horses, mules

  • Confederacy improvised well, but had too little to work with

  • As war progressed, northern economy grew stronger, southern economy grew weaker


Financing the war
Financing the War Indiana

  • Confederacy

    • Treasury notes and inflation

  • Union

    • Most funds raised by bonds

    • Legal Tender Act (1862) and “greenbacks”

  • National Banking Act of 1863


First battle of bull run july 1861
First Battle of Bull Run (July 1861) Indiana

  • 30,000 federal troops marched from D.C. to Manassas Junction, VA

  • Confederates under Stonewall Jackson counter attacked and forced the Union to retreat

  • The battle ended the illusion of a short war and promoted the myth that the Confederates were invincible.

  • George B. McClellan: too cautious


Union strategy general winfield scott
Union Strategy: General Winfield Scott Indiana

  • Use the U.S. navy to blockade all southern ports (Anaconda Plan)

  • Divide the Confederacy in two by controlling the Mississippi River.

  • Raise and train 500,000 soldiers to take Richmond.


Peninsula campaign
Peninsula Campaign Indiana

  • McClellan, the new commander of the Union in the East, insisted on a long period of training.

  • Invaded VA in March 1862 and was stopped by Lee’s superior tactics.

  • McClellan was forced to retreat after five months and was replaced by General John Pope.


Second battle of bull run
Second Battle of Bull Run Indiana

  • Attention focused on Virginia

  • Lee attacked Pope before McClellan could assist with reinforcements

    • Union forces retreat

  • Lee continued to invade Maryland

    • Serious consequences:

      • Maryland might fall to the Confederates

      • Democrats could gain control of Congress

      • Britain and France might recognize the Confederacy


Antietam september 1862
Antietam (September 1862) Indiana

  • Lee moved into Maryland in the hope that a win in the North would convince Britain to support the South.

  • Lincoln had given back the Union command to McClellan.

  • Union intercepted the Confederates at Antietam Creek in Sharpsburg, MD.

  • Bloodiest day of war: 22,000 killed or wounded.

  • Lee retreated to VA.

  • Lincoln blamed McClellan for not pursuing Lee and removed him as commander for a final time.

  • Although a draw, it did stop the Confederates from getting support from Britain.

  • Used this partial win as the basis for the Emancipation Proclamation.



Fredericksburg
Fredericksburg Indiana

  • Ambrose Burnside replaced McClellan.

  • Burnside attacked at Fredericksburg, VA and lost 12,000 to the Confederate’s 5,000.


Monitor vs merrimac march 1862
Monitor Indianavs. Merrimac (March 1862)

  • The Merrimac was a former Union ship rebuilt as an ironclad, renamed the Virginia, and used to sink Union ships.

  • The Union built its own ironclad, the Monitor, and fought a five hour battle with the Merrimac near Hampton Roads, VA.

  • The battle was a draw, but allowed the Union to keep its Anaconda Plan in place.

  • Revolutionized naval warfare



Grant in the west
Grant in the West Indiana

  • In early 1862, Grant used a combination of gunboats and army maneuvers to capture Forts Henry and Donelson on the Cumberland River.

  • 14,000 Confederates were taken prisoner and opened up the Mississippi to Union attack.

  • The Confederates under Albert Johnston surprised Grant at Shiloh, TN, but Grant forced the Confederate retreat after over 23,000 were killed and wounded.

  • The capture of New Orleans by Union naval commander David Farragut aided Grant’s drive down the Mississippi.


Foreign affairs and diplomacy
Foreign Affairs and Diplomacy Indiana

  • Trent Affair

    • Confederate diplomats James Mason and John Slidell were on way to Britain aboard the Trent.

    • Union warship stopped the Trent and brought Mason and Slidell back as prisoners of war.

    • Britain threatened war unless they were released.


Confederate raiders
Confederate Raiders Indiana

  • Confederates purchased British ships for raiding.

  • U.S. minister to Britain, Charles Francis Adams, convinced the British to stop selling ships to the Confederates.


Failure of cotton diplomacy
Failure of Cotton Diplomacy Indiana

  • Britain was able to get cotton from Egypt and India.

  • The Emancipation Proclamation appealed to the British.


The end of slavery
The End of Slavery Indiana

  • Lincoln was hesitant over the issue of slavery.

    • wanted support of border states

    • constitutional protection was needed to end slavery

    • prejudices of northerners

    • fear that it could be overturned in the next election


Confiscation acts
Confiscation Acts Indiana

  • Union Army could confiscate Confederate property.

  • Thousands of escaped slaves fled to Union camps.


Emancipation proclamation
Emancipation Proclamation Indiana

  • Lincoln portrayed emancipation as a means to saving the Union

  • Did not go into effect until 1-1-1863

  • Only freed slaves in areas under rebellion

    • Excluded states that did not secede

    • Excluded states that were occupied already


Freedmen in the war
Freedmen in the War Indiana

  • ¼ of slaves walked away from slavery to seek protection of the Union Army

  • 200,000 African –Americans served in the Union Army



The rise of the copperheads
The Rise of the Copperheads Indiana

  • Lincoln’s support waned significantly in winter, 1863

  • Clement L. Vallandigham, of Ohio

    • Powerful Peace Democratic spokesman

    • Arrested and convicted for treason and aiding and abetting the enemy

    • Banished to the Confederacy for his sentence

    • Runs for governor of Ohio from exile in Canada, but loses


Economic problems in the south
Economic Problems in the South Indiana

  • South suffered from food shortages and hyperinflation

  • Richmond Bread Riot (1863)


The wartime draft and class tensions
The Wartime Draft and Class Tensions Indiana

  • Confederate draft

    • paid substitutes and used slaves

    • “rich man’s war, poor man’s fight”

  • Union draft

    • Bounty jumpers

    • Substitutes

    • Democrats inflame tensions over draft

    • New York City Draft Riot (1863)

  • Class tensions


Blueprint for modern america
Blueprint for Modern America Indiana

  • 37th Congress

    • Homestead Act

    • Morrill Land-Grant College Act

    • Pacific Railroad Act


Women and the war
Women and the War Indiana

  • Female casualties

  • Clerical jobs open to women in the north

  • Clara Barton

  • Women’s Central Association for Relief

    • Dr. Elizabeth Blackwell

    • United States Sanitary Commission

  • National Woman Suffrage Association

    • Elizabeth Cady Stanton

    • Susan B. Anthony


Female spies
Female Spies Indiana


Frances clayton
Frances Clayton Indiana

Source: The National Archives



The gettysburg campaign
The Gettysburg Campaign Indiana

  • Lee invades north June 1863

  • Lee’s forces meet Union army under George Gordon Meade 7-1-1863

  • James Longstreet

  • Lee orders attacks on union flanks, they fail

  • “Pickett’s Charge”: attack in the center, it fails

  • Lee retreats 7-4-1863



The vicksburg campaign
The Vicksburg Campaign Indiana

  • Grant’s campaign and control of the Mississippi River

  • Joseph Johnston

    • Confederate leader

    • Surrendered Vicksburg 7-4-1863


Chickamauga and chattanooga
Chickamauga and Chattanooga Indiana

  • Confederates abandon Knoxville and Chattanooga, losing only East-West rail link

  • Chickamauga: Confederate ambush

  • Lookout Mountain and Missionary Ridge

  • Grant appoint general-in-chief of union army


Black men in blue
Black Men in Blue Indiana

  • Frederick Douglass

    • Blacks fighting for union would guarantee citizenship

  • Field commanders start forming Black regiments from slaves they freed

    • Non-combat roles

    • Paid less than whites

    • Officers were white

  • 54th Massachusetts Infantry

    • Robert Gould Shaw



The atlanta campaign
The Atlanta Campaign Indiana

  • Sherman’s army in Georgia

    • Accomplished more at less cost than Grant

  • Kennesaw Mountain

  • John Bell Hood

    • Replaced Johnston

    • Three counterattacks left Confederates defeated


Peace overtures
Peace Overtures Indiana

  • Horace Greeley

    • U.S. sentiments yearned for peace

  • Lincoln refused to drop the Emancipation Proclamation as a condition of peace

  • Democrats nominated McClellan for President

    • Peace campaign


The prisoner exchange controversy
The Prisoner-Exchange Controversy Indiana

  • Prisoner exchanges for 1st part of war, no large prison camps needed

  • Exchange ends after Confederates threat to kill Black soldiers and their white officers

    • Fort Pillow Massacre

    • Generally not enforced, Blacks returned to their masters

  • Prison camps

    • Overcrowded, poorly constructed

    • 12% of Confederate prisoners died, 16% of Union

    • Andersonville

  • Lincoln refuses to renew exchanges unless Black and White prisoners treated the same


The issue of black soldiers in the confederate army
The Issue of Black Soldiers in the Confederate Army Indiana

  • Winter of 1864-65: Confederates desperate

  • Confederate government agrees to recruit slaves


The capture of atlanta
The Capture of Atlanta Indiana

  • Month-long stalemate at Atlanta front

  • Sherman’s army attacked and captured railroad into Atlanta

  • Atlanta falls to Sherman September 1864


From atlanta to the sea
From Atlanta to the Sea Indiana

  • Union armies destroy Confederate property, railroads, factories, farms that supported the Southern Army

  • Sherman’s forces burned one-third of Atlanta and marched to Savannah, wrecking most everything along the way



Fort fisher and sherman s march through the carolinas
Fort Fisher and Sherman’s March through the Carolinas Indiana

  • Fall of Fort Fisher ends blockade running

  • Sherman’s march of destruction from Savannah into South Carolina

  • War could not end until Confederate forces surrendered


The road to appomattox
The Road to Appomattox Indiana

  • Sheridan’s cavalry and Five Forks

  • Lee Abandons Richmond and Petersburg

  • Lee surrenders to Grant


The assassination of lincoln
The Assassination of Lincoln Indiana

  • Ford’s Theatre, April 1865

  • John Wilkes Booth

  • Confederate armies continued to surrender April – June

  • Jefferson Davis: captured in Georgia


Conclusion
Conclusion Indiana

  • Civil War cost 625,000 lives

  • Since 1865, no state has seriously threatened secession

  • 1865: Thirteenth Amendment abolished slavery and ensured liberty of all Americans

  • Regional transfer of power from South to North


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