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Focus #2 8-26-08 pg. 86 (map). 1. What is the title of the map? 2. Where did all of these civilizations begin around? 3. pg. 80-84 Name three categories or elements of culture. 4. (Yes or No) Can different cultures have things in common?. Mesopotamia and Ancient Egypt. Chapter 16 Section 1.

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Focus 2 8 26 08 pg 86 map
Focus #2 8-26-08pg. 86 (map)

  • 1. What is the title of the map?

  • 2. Where did all of these civilizations begin around?

  • 3. pg. 80-84 Name three categories or elements of culture.

  • 4. (Yes or No) Can different cultures have things in common?


Mesopotamia and ancient egypt

Mesopotamia and Ancient Egypt

Chapter 16

Section 1


Mesopotamia and ancient egypt1
Mesopotamia and Ancient Egypt

  • Egypt, in North Africa, and Mesopotamia, in Southwest Asia, were the earliest known civilizations.

  • A civilization is a highly developed or advanced culture.


Mesopotamia and ancient egypt2
Mesopotamia and Ancient Egypt

  • The time of the earliest civilizations is known as the Bronze Age.


Mesopotamia

Mesopotamia was located between the Tigris River and the Euphrates River.

Today, this area is

located in Iraq.

Why would people want to settle in between two rivers?

Mesopotamia


Mesopotamia1

Mesopotamia Euphrates River.

was part of the

region known as

the Fertile Crescent.

*Fertile Crescent-

1.Known for rich soil

2.good for farming 3.irrigation

4.easy transportation 5. protection

Mesopotamia


Mesopotamia2
Mesopotamia Euphrates River.

  • Around 4500 B.C., people began settling in this area.

  • Farming Revolution-People could produce their own food and not have to travel to get it.

  • 12 month calendar was used based on the phases of the moon.

  • With a steady food supply, the population grew larger.


Questions notes pgs 80 85
Questions: (notes/pgs. 80-85) Euphrates River.

  • 1. What is cultural diffusion?

  • 2. Name two ways that cultures are spreading faster than ever before. Explain.

  • 3. Why did early civilizations start around river valleys?

  • 4. Explain two benefits to living around water for early civilizations and one negative aspect for living around water.


Sumer

The earliest Euphrates River. city-states arose in an area called Sumer.

The Sumerians grew wealthy from trade.

Sumerians invented the wheel and sailboat.

Sumer


Religion and government

Religion was based on Euphrates River. polytheism.

At first, each city-state was a theocracy.

Religion and Government


First systems of writing
First Systems of Writing Euphrates River.

  • The Sumerians were the first to write and keep records of laws.

  • Sumerians created cuneiform.


Akkad and babylon
Akkad and Babylon Euphrates River.

  • Akkad conquered Sumer and several other city-states.

  • Akkad’s King Sargon created the first empire.

  • Over time, the Akkadian Empire weakened and was defeated by the Kingdom of Babylon.

  • Babylon’s greatest king was Hammurabi.

  • Babylonians created a number system based on 60.


Hammurabi s code

Code was a law. Euphrates River.

“An eye for an eye and a tooth for a tooth”

Hammurabi’s Code


A new babylon

Nebuchadnezzar rebuilt the city of Babylon and made it a center of trade and culture.

Babylon was known for its “hanging gardens.”

A New Babylon


Phoenicians

Phoenicians were important traders of Mesopotamia. center of trade and culture.

They formed an alphabet that represented the sound of language.

Phoenicians


Egypt gift of the nile
Egypt – Gift of the Nile center of trade and culture.

  • Egyptian civilization arose along the Nile River in Northeast Africa.

  • Most ancient Egyptians lived near the river and its delta.


The pharaoh

Narmer, a king of Upper Egypt, conquered Lower Egypt and united the two of them.

Narmer had the title of pharaoh.

Egypt was a theocracy.

The Pharaoh


Religion

Egyptians believed in many gods and godesses. Each stood for some part of nature.

The most important were the sun god Re, the river god Hapi, and the sky god Horus.

Religion


Religion1
Religion some part of nature.

  • The Egyptians believed in a form of life after death.

  • The linen wrapped bodies were known as mummies.

  • Rich people were buried in elaborate tombs.

  • The largest tombs were pyramids and belonged to pharaohs.


Trade and conquest

The Hyksos ruled Egypt for 150 years. They taught the Egyptians to use bronze and iron weapons and horse-drawn chariots.

With the new technology, Egypt was able to trade in more places.

Trade and Conquest


Egyptian writing

The ancient Egyptians used Egyptians to use bronze and iron weapons and horse-drawn chariots.hieroglyphics.

They carved and painted hieroglyphic characters on their monuments or on papyrus.

Egyptian Writing


Mathematics and medicine

They used a number system based on ten. Egyptians to use bronze and iron weapons and horse-drawn chariots.

They were the first to use splints, bandages, and compresses.

Mathematics and Medicine


Decline
Decline Egyptians to use bronze and iron weapons and horse-drawn chariots.

  • Egypt eventually grew weak.

  • Priests and pharaohs struggled for power.

  • Egypt was conquered by Greece and Rome.


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