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Islamic Financial Accounting Standard-1 Murabaha Interpretation and Implementation Effective date January 1, 2006 PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Islamic Financial Accounting Standard-1 Murabaha Interpretation and Implementation Effective date January 1, 2006. Ahmed Ali Siddiqui Vice President & Manager Product Development & Shariah Compliance Meezan Bank Limited. Scope of Presentation.

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Islamic Financial Accounting Standard-1 Murabaha Interpretation and Implementation Effective date January 1, 2006

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Islamic Financial Accounting Standard-1

Murabaha

Interpretation and Implementation

Effective date January 1, 2006

Ahmed Ali Siddiqui

Vice President & Manager

Product Development & Shariah Compliance

Meezan Bank Limited


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Scope of Presentation

The scope of this presentation comprises of two main parts;

-Basic Concepts, Modalities and Documentation of Murabaha Transaction

-Process Flow of Murabaha Transaction

-Documentation

-Accounting Policies and Recording Procedure involved in Murabaha transaction as per the requirements and guidelines of IFAS-1

-Accounting Policies

-Recording procedure and disclosure of Murabaha transaction as per IFAS-1


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Introduction

  • Murabahais a kind of Sale whereby “Cost” as well as the “Profit” is known to the Buyer and the Seller.

  • Payment of Murabaha price may be:

    • 1)At spot

    • In installments

    • In lump sum after a certain time

  • Hence, Murabaha does not necessarily imply the concept of deferred payment.


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    Bank

    Client

    Agreement to Murabaha

    Process Flow Murabaha Financing

    1. Client and the Bank sign an agreement to enter into Murabaha through a Master Murabaha Financing Agreement (MMFA).


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    Bank

    Client

    Agency

    Agreement

    Agreement to Murabaha

    Process Flow Murabaha Financing

    2. Client appointed as an agent to purchase goods on the Bank’s behalf.


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    Supplier

    Bank

    Client

    Agency

    Agreement

    Disbursement to the agent or supplier

    Agreement to Murabaha

    Process Flow Murabaha Financing

    3. Bank gives money to an agent/supplier for purchase of goods.


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    Vendor

    Delivery of goods

    Transfer of Risk

    Bank

    Agent

    Process Flow Murabaha Financing

    4. The agent takes possession of goods on the Bank’s behalf.


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    Bank

    Client

    Offer to purchase

    Process Flow Murabaha Financing

    5(a). Client makes an offer to purchase the goods from the Bank through a declaration.


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    Murabaha Agreement

    +

    Transfer of Title

    Bank

    Client

    Process Flow Murabaha Financing

    5(b). Bank accepts the offer and sale is concluded / culminated.


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    Bank

    Client

    Payment of Price

    Process Flow Murabaha Financing

    6. Client pays agreed price to the Bank according to an agreed schedule. Usually on a deferred payment basis (Bai Muajjal)


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    Stages in Murabaha Financing

    • There are two stages in Murabaha transaction:

      • Investment Stage (Agency to Purchase)

      • Financing Stage (Declaration to payment)

    • Profit Recognition in Murabaha

    • The profit for the Murabaha transaction shall be recognized after the goods are sold by the bank to the customer.


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    Murabaha Documentation

    • There are a number of documents involved in a Murabaha financing transaction. The most essential of these documents are:

    • 1)Master Murabaha Financing Agreement (MMFA)

    • Agency Agreement

    • 3)Draw Down Notice

    • Summary Payment Schedule

    • Declaration

    • Details of Assets


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    Murabaha Documentation

    • 1) Master Murabaha Agreement

      • Its an agreement between the client and the Bank whereby the client agrees to purchase goods from the Bank from time to time as per the terms and conditions of this Agreement.

      • This is an over all facility agreement under which various Sub-Murabahas may be executed from time to time.


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    Murabaha Documentation

    • 2) Agency Agreement

      • The client is appointed by the Bank as its agent to purchase goods. This agreement needs to be signed once between the client and the bank.

      • The disbursement of funds is done under this Agreement.

      • List of assets form part of the main Agency Agreement which defines the assets that the client is authorised to by on behalf of the bank acting as an agent.

    • 3) Draw Down Notice

      • These documents are required for each disbursement/Murabaha tranche.

      • Draw down notice must mention the amount.


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    Murabaha Documentation

    • 4) Summary Payment Schedule

      • Summary of Payment schedule should be finalized prior to signing of declaration of Murabaha agreement.

    • 5) Declaration (Offer & Acceptance document)

      • Declaration is to be signed by the customer immediately after the purchase of the goods by the customer.

      • This document establishes the actual sale transaction, i.e. transfer of ownership of goods from the Bank to the customer.

      • At this stage the specific details of the assets must be known i.e. quantity, quality, price etc.

      • Proper timing of declaration is extremely important.


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    Murabaha Documentation

    • 6) List of Assets

      • This forms part of the declaration whereby details of the goods purchased are disclosed.

      • Purchase evidences to be attached with the details of assets as a proof of purchased by the client as an agent of the Bank.

      • The purchase evidences may includes the invoices, good receiving notes, good delivery challans or any other suitable evidence, preferably in the name of the Bank or in the name of the client as an agent of the Bank.


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    Accounting Policy for Murabaha

    IFAS 1 - Murabaha


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    Accounting Policy for Murabaha

    • Transaction Recording

    • Funds disbursed for purchase of goods are recorded as ‘Advance for Murabaha’. On culmination of Murabaha i.e. sale of goods to customers, Murabaha financings are recorded at the deferred sale price net of profit.

    • Previously, Murabaha financings were recorded at the time of disbursement of funds.

    • Goods Purchased but remaining unsold at the balances sheet date are recorded as inventories.

    • Previously these were recorded as Advance against Future Murabaha.

    • Financing are stated net of specific and general Provisions against non- performing financings, if any, which are charged to the profit and loss account.


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    Accounting Policy for Murabaha

    • Revenue Recognition

    • Profit on Murabaha Financings is recognised on accrual basis. Effective January 01, 2006, profit on Murabaha transactions for the period from the date of disbursement to the date of culmination of Murabaha is recognised immediately upon the later date.

    • Previously, profit on Murabaha was recognised from the date of disbursement.


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    Reason for Change in accounting Policy

    Below is a brief summary of recording procedure of the Bank for Murabaha transactions both post and pre adoption of “IFAS-1 Murabaha”.


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    Case Study for Murabaha

    Below is the case study for the understanding of Murabaha transactions carried out at Meezan Bank in various scenarios:


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    Scenario-A

    A-When there is bullet payment of profit and Cost (Principal) at the end of the period:

    1) At the time of payment to the client for the purchase of goods on behalf of bank or directly to the supplier by the bank the transaction will be accounted for as follows:

    January 01, 2007

    Dr Advance against Murabaha (B/S Asset side)1,000

    Cr Pay Order / Party Account (B/S Liability side) 1,000


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    Scenario-A

    2) At the Culmination of Murabaha i.e. at the time of sale of goods

    to the customers with signing of Declaration by the bank and the client

    following entries would be passed:

    January 15, 2007

    DrMurabaha Financing 1,000

    DrUnearned Murabaha Profit Receivable 100

    CrAdvance against Murabaha1,000

    CrDeferred Murabaha Income 100

    3) Booking of Accrual of profit@ 10% from the date of disbursement to the date of culmination, the following entry would be passed. [(1000 x 10%) x 15 / 365]:

    January 15, 2007

    DrDeferred Murabaha Income 4.10

    DrMurabaha Profit Receivable4.10

    CrIncome on Murabaha Financing 4.10

    CrUnearned Murabaha Profit Receivable 4.10


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    Scenario-A-continued

    4) Booking of Accrual of profit@ 10% for remaining days of the month,

    the following entry would be passed. [(1000 x 10%) x 16 / 365]:

    January 31, 2007

    DrDeferred Murabaha Income 4.39

    DrMurabaha Profit Receivable 4.39

    CrIncome on Murabaha Financing 4.39

    CrUnearned Murabaha Profit Receivable4.39

    And so on this entry will be passed at the end of EACH month till maturity for the accrual of profit.

    Disclosure in Balance Sheet as on January 31, 2007

    Murabaha receivable-gross1,100

    Less: Deferred Murabaha Income {100- (1000x10%x31/365)}(91.51)

    Murabaha Profit Receivable shown in other assets(8.49)

    Murabaha Financing Receivable1,000


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    Scenario-A-continued

    5) On Maturity of Murabaha transaction i.e. on December 31, 2007 and at the time of receiving of final payment following entry would be passed:

    December 31, 2007

    DrParty Bank A/c1,100

    CrMurabaha Financing 1,000

    CrMurabaha Profit Receivable 100


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    Scenario-B

    B-In case Declaration is not received on January 15, 2007 and is received on February 15, 2006:

    1) At the time of payment to the client for the purchase of goods on behalf of bank or directly to the supplier by the bank the transaction will be accounted for as follows:

    January 01, 2007

    DrAdvance against Murabaha1,000

    CrPay Order / Party Account1,000

    On January15, 2007

    No entry would be passed

    At the end of First Month i.e. January 31, 2007

    No entry would be passed for accruals of profit, as Declaration has not been received from the customer.


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    Scenario-B

    2) On February 15, 2007, at the culmination of Murabaha i.e. at the time of sale of goods to the customers with signing of Declaration by the bank and the client, the following entries would be passed:

    February 15, 2007

    DrMurabaha Financing 1,000

    DrUnearned Murabaha Profit Receivable 100

    CrAdvance against Murabaha1,000

    CrDeferred Murabaha Income 100


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    Scenario-B-continued

    3) Booking of Accrual of profit@ 10% from the date of disbursement to the date of culmination, the following entry would be passed. [(1000 x 10%) x (31+15)/ 365]:

    February 15, 2007

    DrDeferred Murabaha Income 12.60

    DrMurabaha Profit Receivable 12.60

    CrIncome on Murabaha Financing 12.60

    CrUnearned Murabaha Profit Receivable 12.60


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    Scenario-B-continued

    4) Booking of Accrual of profit@ 10% for remaining days of the

    month, the following entry would be passed. [(1000 x 10%) x 13 / 365]:

    February 28, 2007

    DrDeferred Murabaha Income 3.56

    DrMurabaha Profit Receivable 3.56

    CrIncome on Murabaha Financing 3.56

    CrUnearned Murabaha Profit Receivable 3.56

    And so on this entry will be passed at the end of EACH month till maturity for the accrual of profit.

    NOTE: In case the Murabaha declaration is NOT received on the due date, NO Entry would be passed until the declaration is received.

    Disclosure in Balance Sheet as at February 28, 2007

    Murabaha receivable-gross1,100

    Less: Deferred Murabaha Income{100- (1000x10%x(31+28)/365)}(83.84)

    Murabaha Profit Receivable shown in other assets(16.16)

    Murabaha Financing Receivable1,000


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    Scenario-B-continued

    5) On Maturity of Murabaha transaction i.e. on December 31, 2007 and at the time of receiving of final payment following entry would be passed:

    December 31, 2007

    DrParty Bank A/c1,100

    CrMurabaha Financing 1,000

    CrMurabaha Profit Receivable 100


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    Treatment for Inventory

    • If goods purchased for Murabaha remain unsold on the reporting date they are shown as “Murabaha Inventory” in Other Assets.

    • Following are possible scenario:

    • Bank is holding assets for future sale to its customers against a promise

    • The Goods are imported as Bank’s agent and are not sold to the importers i.e. they are in PAD

    • Any other reason due to which the goods remain unsold.


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    THANK YOU


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