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Environmentalism in Global Perspective. The First Wave Early responses to Industrialization. First Wave: 19 th Century. Response to industrialization Arose in Britain first Urban/rural relationship Coal, deforestation, enclosure movement Imperialism and industrialization

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Environmentalism in global perspective

Environmentalism in Global Perspective

The First Wave

Early responses to Industrialization


First wave 19 th century
First Wave: 19th Century

  • Response to industrialization

    • Arose in Britain first

    • Urban/rural relationship

    • Coal, deforestation, enclosure movement

  • Imperialism and industrialization

    • Ecological debt of First World to Third World

  • 3 strands

    • Back-to-the-land

    • Scientific conservation

    • Wilderness preservation


Back to the land
Back-to-the-land

●Romantics: Rescralization of nature

- Cities as ecological parasites

- Agrarian self-sufficiency

William Wordsworth

John Ruskin, Edward Carpenter

Ralph Waldo Emerson, Henry David Thoreau

  • U.S.: Shakers, Amish, Quakers

  • Gandhi

    • Voluntary simplicity, village life, crafts and cottage industries

    • Practical, NOT romantic


Scientific conservation
Scientific Conservation

  • Finite resources should be rationally managed

    • “Maximum sustainable yield”

      • Applied to forests, freshwater, fisheries, wildlife

  • Ideological link between conservation & conservatism

  • Depends upon state control of resources

    • Applied most extensively in colonies

    • Authoritarian state rule unconstrained by parliaments & democracy

  • George Perkins Marsh, Dietrich Brandis, Gifford Pinchot

  • Opposition: anti-colonialist movements

    • Peasant & nationalist movements


Wilderness ideal
Wilderness Ideal

  • Seems peculiar to U.S., but has old lineage

    • Sacred groves ubiquitous across history & culture

  • Colonial application of “wilderness”

    • "Game reserves" in Africa excluded Africans from hunting

    • National parks excluded them altogether

  • Yellowstone: first national park in the world (1872)

    • The U.S. at the forefront of the wilderness ideal

      • John Muir founded Sierra Club (1892)

    • Now, over 1000 around world.

  • Aldo Leopold

    • From scientific conservation to "land ethic"

  • Deep ecology

    • Arne Naess: strong Gandhian influence

    • U.S. deep ecology movement: Earth First!


Some who don t fit
Some who don’t fit

  • Forerunners of social ecology

    • Socioeconomic critique

    • Interaction of society & nature

    • Intergenerational perspective

    • Regional perspective

      Q: Was Gandhi an environmentalist?

      Q: What, if anything, ties together these strands of environmentalism?


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