Patient assessment
Sponsored Links
This presentation is the property of its rightful owner.
1 / 71

Patient Assessment PowerPoint PPT Presentation

  • Uploaded on
  • Presentation posted in: General

Patient Assessment. Chapter 8. Patient Assessment. Scene size-up Initial assessment Focused history and physical exam Vital signs History Detailed physical exam Ongoing assessment. Patient Assessment Process. Scene Size Up. Dispatch information Inspection of scene Scene hazards

Download Presentation

Patient Assessment

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Presentation Transcript

Patient assessment

Patient Assessment

Chapter 8

Patient assessment1

Patient Assessment

  • Scene size-up

  • Initial assessment

  • Focused history and physical exam

    • Vital signs

    • History

  • Detailed physical exam

  • Ongoing assessment

Patient assessment process

Patient Assessment Process

Scene size up

Scene Size Up

  • Dispatch information

  • Inspection of scene

  • Scene hazards

  • Safety concerns

  • Mechanism of injury

  • Nature of illness/chief complaint

  • Number of patients

  • Additional resources needed

Body substance isolation

Body Substance Isolation

  • Assumes all body fluids present a possible risk for infection

  • Protective equipment

    • Latex or vinyl gloves should always be worn

    • Eye protection

    • Mask

    • Gown

    • Turnout gear

Scene safety potential hazards

Scene Safety: Potential Hazards

  • Oncoming traffic

  • Unstable surfaces

  • Leaking gasoline

  • Downed electrical lines

  • Potential for violence

  • Fire or smoke

  • Hazardous materials

  • Other dangers at crash or rescue scenes

  • Crime scenes

Scene safety

Scene Safety

  • Park in a safe area.

  • Speak with law enforcement first if present.

  • The safety of you and your partner comes first!

  • Next concern is the safety of patient(s) and bystanders.

  • Request additional resources if needed to make scene safe.

Mechanism of injury

Mechanism of Injury

  • Helps determine the possible extent of injuries on trauma patients

  • Evaluate:

    • Amount of force applied to body

    • Length of time force was applied

    • Area of the body involved

Nature of illness

Nature of Illness

  • Search for clues to determine the nature of illness.

  • Often described by the patient’s chief complaint

  • Gather information from the patient and people on scene.

  • Observe the scene

The importance of moi noi

The Importance of MOI/NOI

  • Guides preparation for care to patient

  • Suggests equipment that will be needed

  • Prepares for further assessment

  • Fundamentals of assessment are same whether emergency appears to be related to trauma or medical cause.

Number of patients

Number of Patients

  • Determine the number of patients and their condition.

  • Assess what additional resources will be needed.

  • Triage to identify severity of each patient’s condition.

Additional resources

Additional Resources

  • Medical resources

    • Additional units

    • Advanced life support

  • Nonmedical resources

    • Fire suppression

    • Rescue

    • Law enforcement

C spine immobilization

C-Spine Immobilization

  • Consider early during assessment.

  • Do not move without immobilization.

  • Err on the side of caution.

Patient assessment process1

Patient Assessment Process

Initial assessment

Initial Assessment

  • Develop a general impression.

  • Assess mental status.

  • Assess airway.

  • Assess the adequacy of breathing.

  • Assess circulation.

  • Identify patient priority

Develop a general impression

Develop a General Impression

  • Occurs as you approach the scene and the patient

    • Assessment of the environment

    • Patient’s chief complaint

    • Presenting signs and symptoms of patient

Obtaining consent

Obtaining Consent

  • Introduce self.

  • Ask patient’s name.

  • Obtain consent.

Chief complaint

Chief Complaint

  • Most serious problem voiced by the patient

  • May not be the most significant problem present

Assessing mental status

Assessing Mental Status

  • Responsiveness

    • How the patient responds to external stimuli

  • Orientation

    • Mental status and thinking ability

Testing responsiveness

Testing Responsiveness

  • AAlert

  • VResponsive to Verbal stimulus

  • PResponsive to Pain

  • UUnresponsive

Testing orientation

Testing Orientation

  • Person

  • Place

  • Time

  • Event

Caring for abnormal mental status

Caring for Abnormal Mental Status

  • Complete initial assessment.

  • Provide high-flow oxygen.

  • Consider spinal immobilization.

  • Initiate transport.

  • Support ABCs.

  • Reassess.

Assessing the airway

Assessing the Airway

  • Look for signs of airway compromise:

    • Two- to three-word dyspnea

    • Use of accessory muscles

    • Nasal flaring and use of accessory muscles in children

    • Labored breathing

Signs of airway obstruction in the unconscious patient

Signs of Airway Obstruction in the Unconscious Patient

  • Obvious trauma, blood, or other obstruction

  • Noisy breathing such as bubbling, gurgling, crowing, or other abnormal sounds

  • Extremely shallow or absent breathing

Assessing breathing

Assessing Breathing

  • Choking

  • Rate

  • Depth

  • Cyanosis

  • Lung sounds

  • Air movement

High flow oxygen administration

High-Flow Oxygen Administration

  • Breathing faster than 20 breaths/min

  • Breathing slower than 12 breaths/min

  • Breathing too shallow

  • Decreased level of consciousness

  • Respiratory distress

  • Poor skin color

Positioning the patient

Positioning the Patient

  • Position of comfort

    • Sitting up with feet dangling

    • High Fowler’s position

  • Spinal precautions if possible spinal injury

Assessing the pulse

Assessing the Pulse

  • Presence

  • Rate

  • Rhythm

  • Strength

Normal pulse rates in infants and children

Normal Pulse Rates in Infants and Children

Assessing and controlling external bleeding

Assessing and Controlling External Bleeding

  • Assess after clearing the airway and stabilizing breathing.

  • Look for blood flow or blood on floor/clothes.

  • Controlling bleeding

    • Direct pressure

    • Elevation

    • Pressure points

Assessing perfusion

Assessing Perfusion

  • Color

  • Temperature

  • Skin condition

  • Capillary refill

Priority patients

Priority Patients

  • Difficulty breathing

  • Poor general impression

  • Unresponsive with no gag reflex

  • Severe chest pain

  • Signs of poor perfusion

  • Complicated childbirth

  • Uncontrolled bleeding

  • Responsive but unable to follow commands

  • Severe pain

  • Inability to move any part of the body

Transport decision

Transport Decision

  • Patient condition

  • Availability of advanced care

  • Distance to transport

  • Local protocols

Patient assessment process2

Patient Assessment Process

Focused history and physical exam

Focused History and Physical Exam

  • Understand the circumstances surrounding the chief complaint.

  • Obtain objective measurements.

  • Perform physical exam.

Components of focused history and physical exam

Components of Focused History and Physical Exam

  • Medical history

  • Baseline vital signs

  • Physical exam

Rapid physical exam

Rapid Physical Exam

  • 60-90 second head-to-toe exam

  • Performed on:

    • Significant trauma patients

    • Unresponsive medical patients

  • Identifies undiscovered conditions

Dcap btls


  • D Deformities

  • C Contusions

  • A Abrasions

  • P Punctures/ Penetrations

  • B Burns

  • T Tenderness

  • L Lacerations

  • S Swelling

Components of a rapid physical exam

Components of a Rapid Physical Exam

Patient assessment

  • Maintain spinal immobilization while checking patient’s ABCs.

  • Assess the head.

  • Assess the neck.

  • Apply a cervical spine immobilization collar.

Patient assessment

  • Assess the chest.

    • Include presence of

      lung sounds

  • Assess the abdomen.

  • Assess the pelvis.

Patient assessment

  • Assess all four extremities.

    • Include:

      • P- Pulse

      • M- Motor

      • S- Sensation

  • Roll the patient with spinal precautions.

Focused physical exam

Focused Physical Exam

  • Used to evaluate patient’s chief complaint

  • Performed on:

    • Trauma patients without significant MOI

    • Responsive medical patients

Head neck and cervical spine

Head, Neck, and Cervical Spine

  • Feel head and neck for deformity, tenderness, or crepitation.

  • Check for bleeding.

  • Ask about pain or tenderness



  • Watch chest rise and fall with breathing.

  • Feel for grating bones as patient breathes.

  • Listen to breath sounds.



  • Look for obvious injury, bruises, or bleeding.

  • Evaluate for tenderness and any bleeding.

  • Do not palpate too hard.



  • Look for any signs of obvious injury, bleeding, or deformity.

  • Press gently inward and downward on pelvic bones.



  • Look for obvious injuries.

  • Feel for deformities.

  • Assess

    • Pulse

    • Motor function

    • Sensory function

Posterior body

Posterior Body

  • Feel for tenderness, deformity, and open wounds.

  • Carefully palpate from neck to pelvis.

  • Look for obvious injuries.

Specific chief complaints

Specific Chief Complaints

  • Chest pain

  • Shortness of breath

  • Pain associated with bones or joints

  • Abdominal pain

  • Dizziness

Significant mechanism of injury

Significant Mechanism of Injury

  • Ejection from vehicle

  • Death in passenger compartment

  • Fall greater than 15'-20'

  • Vehicle rollover

  • High-speed collision

  • Vehicle-pedestrian collision

  • Motorcycle crash

  • Unresponsiveness or altered mental status

  • Penetrating trauma to the head, chest, or abdomen

Assessment steps for significant moi

Assessment Steps for Significant MOI

  • Rapid trauma assessment

  • Baseline vital signs

  • SAMPLE history

  • Reevaluate transport decision

Assessment steps for trauma patients without significant moi

Assessment Steps for Trauma Patients Without Significant MOI

  • Focused assessment

  • Baseline vital signs

  • SAMPLE history

  • Reevaluate transport decision

Responsive medical patients

Responsive Medical Patients

  • History of illness

  • SAMPLE history

  • Focused assessment

  • Vital signs

  • Reevaluate transport decision

Unresponsive medical patients

Unresponsive Medical Patients

  • Rapid medical assessment

  • Baseline vital signs

  • SAMPLE history

  • Reevaluate transport decision

Patient assessment process3

Patient Assessment Process

Detailed physical exam

Detailed Physical Exam

  • More in-depth exam based on focused physical exam

  • Should only be performed if time and patient’s condition allows

  • Usually performed en route to the hospital

Performing the detailed physical exam

Performing the DetailedPhysical Exam

Patient assessment

  • Visualize and palpate using DCAP-BTLS.

  • Look at the face.

  • Inspect the area around the eyes and eyelids.

  • Examine the eyes.

Patient assessment

  • Pull the patient’s ear forward to assess for bruising.

  • Use the penlight to look for drainage or blood in the ears.

Patient assessment

  • Look for bruising and lacerations about the head.

  • Palpate the zygomas.

Patient assessment

  • Palpate the maxillae.

  • Palpate the mandible

Patient assessment

  • Assess the mouth and nose for obstructions and cyanosis.

  • Check for unusual odors.

Patient assessment

  • Look at the neck.

  • Palpate the front and the back of the neck.

  • Look for distended jugular veins.

Patient assessment

  • Look at the chest.

  • Gently palpate over the ribs

Patient assessment

  • Listen for breath sounds.

  • Listen also at the bases and apices of the lungs.

Patient assessment

  • Look at the abdomen and pelvis.

  • Gently palpate the abdomen.

  • Gently compress the pelvis.

Patient assessment

  • Gently press the iliac crests.

  • Inspect all four extremities.

  • Assess the back for tenderness or deformities

Patient assessment process4

Patient Assessment Process

Ongoing assessment

Ongoing Assessment

  • Is treatment improving the patient’s condition?

  • Has an already identified problem gotten better? Worse?

  • What is the nature of any newly identified problems?

Steps of the ongoing assessment

Steps of the Ongoing Assessment

  • Repeat the initial assessment.

  • Reassess and record vital signs.

  • Repeat focused assessment.

  • Check interventions

  • Login