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Designing Reading Instruction to Optimize Children’s Achievement. How should research-based evidence guide us?* Jeanne R. Paratore Boston University 605 Commonwealth Avenue Boston, MA 02215 [email protected] 617-353-2385

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designing reading instruction to optimize children s achievement
Designing Reading Instruction to Optimize Children’s Achievement

How should research-based evidence guide us?*

Jeanne R. Paratore

Boston University

605 Commonwealth Avenue

Boston, MA 02215

[email protected]

617-353-2385

**The information on these slides is based on a review of the work of others; please consult attached list for selected references.

what is evidence based reading instruction
What is EVIDENCE-BASED READING INSTRUCTION?
  • a particular program or collection of instructional practices that have a proven record of success
    • objective
    • valid
    • systematic
    • refereed
    • generalizable
slide4

Quest for BEST PROGRAM has been elusive.“Children learn to read by a variety of materials and methods…No one approach is so distinctly better in all situations and respects than the others that it should be considered the one best method and the one to be used exclusively.”(Bond & Dykstra, 1997, p. 416)

quest for best practices has been fruitful
Quest for BEST PRACTICES has been fruitful.
  • The results of the First-Grade studies again provide a relevant starting place. Although findings failed to show superiority of any particular approach or program, evidence did indicate strong relationships between particular practices and high achievement.
research based practices
Research-Based Practices

1. Engage children in purposeful, authentic reading tasks

2. Use high-quality literature

3. Provide intensive, explicit, word study instruction

4. Provide explicit, strategic comprehension instruction

5. Provide explicit, strategic writing instruction

6. Provide whole, small group, and individual instruction

7. Engage all children in the regular-education curriculum

8. Provide extensive, in-class reading time

9. Integrate instruction in reading and writing

10. Engage in continuous, multiple methods of assessment

slide8
Effective teachers know that becoming a successful reader/writer requires the development of multiple literacies.
  • the ability to read words quickly and fluently
  • the knowledge of language and concepts necessary to understand and respond to reading
  • the knowledge of comprehension strategies necessary to fully understand and respond to reading
slide9
Effective teachers also know that different instructional experiences and a variety of texts support different literacies.
  • Frequent practice with easy, readable text builds word knowledge and fluency.
  • Experiences with stories that are rich and complex in both language and event structures support development of oral and written language.
  • Opportunities to respond individually and in groups or pairs support reading comprehension.
to optimize children s opportunities to read effective teachers provide
To optimize children’s opportunities to read, effective teachers provide:
  • Easy access to books and writing materials
  • Purposeful wall displays
  • Classroom routines that require purposeful reading, writing, listening, and speaking
systematic and balanced attention to the range of children s reading needs matters
Systematic and balanced attention to the range of children’s reading needs matters.
a typical day in an effective reading classroom
A Typical Day in an Effective Reading Classroom
  • Community Reading
    • Time each day when children read (or listen to) grade-appropriate text
  • Just Right Reading
    • Time each day when children receive instruction in text that will support the development of particular word level and comprehension strategies
  • On Your Own Reading
    • Time each day when children read anything of their own choosing
community reading
Community Reading
  • Story Introduction(Whole Class)
    • Preview text, develop background knowledge, make predictions
  • Reading the Selection(Needs-Based Groups)
    • No Help With Help (Teacher-led Group)
    • Silent reading - Read aloud by teacher
    • Partner rereading - Rereading with teacher or partner
    • Partner response - Group Response (oral)
    • Individual response - Individual Response (Written)
  • Responding to the Selection(Heterogeneous Groups)
    • Books Club (Raphael & McMahon, 1997)
just right reading
Just Right Reading
  • Supporting Struggling Readers
    • Instruction in word level strategies using easy text
    • Reading and rereading of easy books
  • Supporting Average and Above Average Readers
    • Instruction in word level and comprehension strategies using Community Reading Text
    • Reading beyond Community Reading Text
    • Serving as peer or cross-age tutor
on your own reading
On Your Own Reading
  • Children read a book or text of their own choosing
  • Children may read individually or in pairs
  • Teacher may intervene if child consistently or repeatedly chooses books too easy or too difficult
children need an abundant collection of high quality books diverse in
Children need an abundant collection of high quality books diverse in:
  • Levels of difficulty
  • Genre
  • Topic
  • Cultural representation
effective word study instruction
Effective word study instruction:
  • Begins with phonemic awareness
  • Encourages invented or temporary spellings
  • Focuses on reading words, not learning rules
  • Focuses on letter/sound relationships, including individual phonemes and phonograms as patterns
  • Emphasizes transfer of word study strategies to in-context reading and writing
  • Emphasizes fluency
effective instruction focuses on essential comprehension routines
Effective instruction focuses on essential comprehension routines.
  • Focusing attention and setting purpose
  • Organizing information during and after reading
  • Elaborating on ideas and clarifying information
  • Summarizing
  • Self-monitoring and self-correcting
slide23
EXPLICIT INSTRUCTION scaffolds learning by gradually releasing responsibility from the teacher to children.
  • Demonstration
  • Guided Practice
  • Independent Practice
strategic instruction prepares the child to perform independently
STRATEGIC INSTRUCTION prepares the child to perform independently.
  • Explains what to do
  • Shows how to do it
  • Explains when and why the strategy is useful
teachers need to consider types contexts and purposes for response
Teachers need to consider types, contexts, and purposes for response.
  • Types of response
    • Journal writing
    • Book talks
  • Contexts for response
    • Collaborative
    • Individual
  • Purposes of response
    • Aesthetic
    • Efferent
effective teachers consider frequency context and types of self assessment opportunities
Effective teachers consider frequency, context, and types of self-assessment opportunities.
  • Frequency
    • End of task
    • End of day
    • End of “unit”
  • Context
    • Individual
    • Group
  • Type
    • Oral
    • Written
assessment that informs instruction
Assessment that informs instruction:
  • Utilizes multiple measures
  • Is continuous
  • Is embedded in the instructional context
  • Is consequential in future learning tasks
slide31
Running records provide documentation of children’s fluency at the word level.
  • Retellings provide information about
    • comprehension
    • organization of recall
    • discourse styles
    • elaboration and clarification
slide32
Book Talks provide documentation of
    • comprehension
    • oral language
    • participation styles
  • Writing samples provide documentation of
    • phonemic awareness
    • spelling
    • comprehension
    • grammatic understanding
teachers who make a difference in children s reading achievement
Teachers who make a difference in children’s reading achievement:
  • havehighexpectations for all children
  • include all children in “regular” curriculum
  • provide instruction in contexts other than whole group
  • provide lots of time for children to read and reread text
  • provide struggling readers both extra help and extra time
  • provide explicit instruction in word study AND comprehension strategies
  • provide explicit instruction and time to write
  • integrate instruction in reading and writing
  • emphasize reading and writing as social activities
  • continue to study the ways children learn to read and write
best practices can be des cribed but not pre scribed gambrell mazzoni 1999 p 13
“Best practices can be described, but not prescribed.” Gambrell & Mazzoni, 1999, p. 13
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