How did geography and history affect the worldviews of the aztec and the spanish
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How Did Geography and History Affect the Worldviews of the Aztec and the Spanish?. Chapter 7. Geographic Influence: Spanish. Italy. France. V. V. V. V. V. V. V. V. V. V. V. V. V. Portugal. V. V. V. V. V. V. V. V. V. V. V. V. V. V. Atlantic Ocean.

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Chapter 7

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How did geography and history affect the worldviews of the aztec and the spanish

How Did Geography and History Affect the Worldviews of the Aztec and the Spanish?

Chapter 7


Geographic influence spanish

Geographic Influence: Spanish

Italy

France

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Portugal

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Atlantic Ocean

Strait of Gibraltar

AFRICA


Chapter 7

Plateau: a large, raised area of mostly flat land

How might this have made movement around Spain easier? What benefits could this have?


How did the history of spain affect it s worldview

How did the History of Spain Affect It’s Worldview?

  • Spain was ruled by many kingdoms throughout it’s history.

  • The northern half was mostly Christian and the southern half was Muslim dominated and ruled by The Moors of North Africa.

  • Muslim rule lasted for about 700 years.


How did contact with the moors influence spain

How Did Contact with the Moors Influence Spain?

  • For almost 700 years, the Islamic Empire controlled a huge empire in the Iberian Peninsula (today's Spain ).

  • The city of Cordoba was looked upon as a major centre of learning and of the arts.

  • Muslim scholars along with Jewish scholars were involved inthe revival of the study of ancient Greek and Roman culture and philosophy.

Cordoba


Chapter 7

  • They included the following disciplines:

    • Important schools of astronomy, mathematics and architecture.

    • The national art of Spain, Mozarabic.

    • Great libraries including books on a variety of topics such as;

      • architecture astrology, astronomy, pharmacology, psychology, zoology, botany, optics, chemistry, physics, mathematics, navigation, and history.

    • A large collection of classical documents from Greek intellectuals on the ideas of logic and questioning.

    • Beautiful buildings which included mosques and palaces.


Chapter 7

  • All Religious faiths were allowed to practice their own religion, but some Christian faiths fought against the Muslims in order to recapture Muslim held lands.

  • This was known as the Reconquista.


Chapter 7

  • -The Spanish conquistadors felt that it was their duty to convert non-Christian people and to fight for God and their country.

  • Spain was still made up of many different kingdoms and the largest kingdoms were united with the marriage of Ferdinand and Isabella. (pg 236-237)

  • -By 1492 (under King Ferdinand V and Queen Isabella I), Moorish control of Spain was over.

    • ended 700 years of wars between Monarchs & the Moors


How did the spanish monarchy become so powerful

How Did the Spanish Monarchy Become so Powerful?

  • After their marriage, Ferdinand and Isabella took over the monarchy to have the power to rule Spain as they wished. To do this, they

    • centralized government under their control

    • created a more efficient government bureaucracy

    • imposed new taxes

    • took control of the Roman Catholic Church in Spain

    • began the Spanish Inquisition

    • forbade any faith but Roman Catholicism


Chapter 7

  • The Spanish Parliament (Cortes) was established in the 8th century to keep the power of the monarchs under controlby

    • controlling the national treasury

    • Requiring the king or queen to get approval for all major expenditures.

  • Over time, members of the Cortes (made up of aristocrats)became very powerful.

Ferdinand and Isabella

  • made men from humbler origins members of the Cortes, not aristocracy

  • allowed nobles to participate in parliamentary proceedings, but not vote

  • reorganized important financial and judicial institutions so the monarchy had more control

  • centralized the powers of the government under three Councils; State, Finance, and Justice

  • They also gained the support of the merchants and sent their own representatives to tax citizens and govern cities.


Chapter 7

  • The Roman Catholic faith was considered to be the only true faith in Spain.

  • The King and Queen were granted control of the Church by being allowed to choose important church positions.

    • The Pope allowed Spain to do this if Spain started the Inquisition.

  • Ferdinand and Isabella believed that the only way Spain would stay united was that if everyone followed one religion.


Spanish inquisition

Spanish Inquisition

  • 1492 - 1834

  • Was a civil & religious court that was set up to judge whether or not a person was a true follower of the Catholic faith.

  • People could be imprisoned, tortured, put to death, etc.

  • Many Muslim people and Jewish people peoplewere forced to leave Spain even if they had converted to Catholicism.


Chapter 7

  • During the Reconquista, Western Europe was benefiting from better economies, new technology.

  • King Ferdinand wanted to extend the powers of Spain and had a strong desire to conquer new lands

  • Spain looked to explore the Western Hemisphere and west across the Atlantic.

  • In 1492, Columbus sailed west across the Atlantic and claimed the Caribbean region for Spain for 3 basic reasons:

    • Gold (Economic) – Resources and Goods from their new empire and colonies

    • God (Religious) – To spread the word of God and convert to Roman Catholicism.

    • Glory (Political) – To expand the Spanish empire.

  • The Spanish (and most European societies) considered themselves culturally superior to others. This attitude of ethnocentrism was used to justify the harsh treatment of the peoples they conquered.


Chapter 7

  • Although Spain still had some domestic (internal) problems, Ferdinand and Isabella were able to start a policy of exploration and discovery.

  • By the 1500’s, Spain controlled large areas of the Caribbean, the Americas, and parts of Asia and Africa from funding Columbus’ explorations.

  • In the 16th century, Spain was the most powerful and wealthy country in Europe.


Geographic influence aztec

Geographic Influence: Aztec

United States

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Gulf of

Mexico

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Rio Grande

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Usamacinta

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Pacific Ocean

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Caribbean Sea

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Belize

Guatemala

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-Mountains

-Desert

-Tropical Forest

-Rain Forest

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R


How did the history of the aztec affect their worldview

How did the History of the Aztec Affect Their Worldview?

The Long Migration

  • The Mexica people (Aztecs) were part of a large group of Nahuatl-speaking (NAH-watl) people.

  • Origin stories tell of the Aztec leaving their homeland of Aztlan and wandering in a semi-nomadiclifestyle (partially settled and partially moving around) from about 1100-1300. (200 years)

  • The Aztec God Huitzilopochtli encouraged the people to move often, and endure many hardships.

  • Eventually after a long and difficult migration they settled in the Valley of Mexico.


How did the history of the aztec affect their worldview1

How did the History of the Aztec Affect Their Worldview?

  • This region was already occupied by a large number of other city-states and the Aztec’s were considered barbarous and driven from one location to another.

  • Many of these city states had conflicts with the Aztecs.


Why did the other meso american tribes have conflicts with the aztec

Why did the other Meso-American tribes have conflicts with the Aztec?

The Aztecs practiced human sacrifice. They believed that if their gods were not fed, they would not do their jobs. The sun god would not bring up the sun, and everyone would die.

Some of the people they sacrificed were Aztecs. However, most of the people they sacrificed were captured from neighboring tribes. This portrayed them as barbaric and uncultured. Sooner or later, their neighbors would band together to chase the Aztecs away.


Final settlement

Final Settlement

When the Aztecs first arrived in the Valley of Mexico, other tribes were already living on the best land in the area.

Rather than fight for the best land or for captives to feed their hungry gods, the Aztecs settled along the swampy shores of Lake Texcoco because they received a sign from their god to do so.


Chapter 7

Mexico City

  • Eventually the Aztec settled on a swampy island in the middle of Lake Texcoco.

  • The city was called Tenochtitlan (tay-noach-tee-TLAHN), the city named after their leader Tenoch.

  • The Aztec still had tensions with their neighbors but they worked hard as servants and mercenaries. They became skilled workers and ferocious warriors.

  • The city was connected to the mainland and by the year 1500 was bigger than any European city.

  • The Aztec began to develop their new culture based on the history of constant movement (the long migration made them strong, courageous and determined)and on some of the manners and traditions of the societies around them.


How did contact with other meso american societies influence the aztec

How Did Contact with Other Meso-American Societies Influence the Aztec?

  • Each time the Aztec stopped during their long migration, it influenced their religious beliefs and practices, social structure, architecture, and art

  • The Aztec were influenced by the three greatest earlier civilizations of the Valley of Mexico. These were the Olmec, the Teotihuacan and the Toltec.

  • The Toltec are believed to have had the greatest influence and impact on the Aztec culture. The Aztec believed that the Toltec were masters at creating a refined civilization.

  • Eventually the Aztec became powerful as a result of these encounters and were able to command respect from their neighbors.


Chapter 7

Effects of Other Meso-American Societies on Aztec Culture

Religious Beliefs and Practices

  • The belief that gods could take on different incarnations (taking on a physical form) such as the jaguar (an earth mother goddess) and the serpent (a water goddess)

  • A belief in many gods, Quetzalcoatl (the gentle plumed serpent god), Tezcatlipoca or Smoking Mirror (who had a war-like nature), and the god of rain Tlaloc

  • Religious practices that centered on seasonal cycles, emphasizing astronomy and the calendar

  • A belief that human sacrifices were necessary to sustain the gods with human hearts and blood


Chapter 7

Social Systems

  • A hierarchical society with both a noble class, priests, and commoners

  • A government with a strong central authority

  • Militarism- maintaining a strong military force build the empire

Architecture and Art

  • Huge pyramid-shaped temples to honour the gods

  • Beautiful murals, large sculptures, and monuments of both humans and animals, mainly with religious motifs

  • The art of fine jewellery making, ceramic pottery, mosaic, metalworking, and featherworks


Itzcoatl founder of the empire 1428 1440

ItzcoatlFounder of the Empire(1428-1440)

  • The Aztec leader, who eventually led the Aztec in conquering most of the city-states in the Valley of Mexico.

  • He became the leader the newly formed “Triple-Alliance” of city-states.

  • He established a hierarchical social system with distinct social classes and improved the military by creating an elite group of warriors who came from nobility.


How did the aztec emperors become the most powerful rulers in the valley of mexico

How Did the Aztec Emperors become the most Powerful Rulers in the Valley of Mexico?

  • In 1376, Acamapichtli, became the Aztec emperor that linked the Aztec to the Toltec.

    • His mother and wife were of Culhuaancestry

    • Culhuawere considered to be direct descendants of the Toltec.

  • The Aztec empire grew under the leadership of Itzcoatl, and conquered most of the Valley of Mexico.

  • By the 1500’s, most of Meso-America was controlled by the Aztec. (About the same time as the unification of Spain). Everything occuring in the America’s prior to this period is called Pre-Columbian.

  • The Aztec knew that they needed to claim direct lineage to the Toltec in order to be respected by the Meso-American societies.


Chapter 7

  • The Aztec had two goals when they were attacking another city-state.

    • to seek an honourable defeat for their enemy and then make them provide labour to the empire

    • gain soldiers for the human sacrifice to the god Huitzilopochtli

  • The Aztec would first conquer surrounding city-states and then the isolated city-state that was left.

  • When the city-states were defeated, its citizens were required to

    • promise allegiance to the Emperor

    • pay tribute to him in either goods or services

    • worship the god Huitzilopochtli

  • The Aztec empire eventually included over 50 city-states.

  • The Emperor and his second in command, the Chief of Internal Affairs were the highest of the nobility.

  • The priests were important advisors to the emperor and determined which days would be best (lucky) for war and religious ceremonies. 

  • The Tlatoque ruled major towns and cities and the Tecutin ruled smaller areas.


Aztec creation story

Aztec Creation Story

  • Creator God: Ometecuhhtli / Omecihautl

  • 4 sons Tezcatlipoca

    (Night God)

    XipeTotecQuetzatcoatl

    (God of Farming) (God of Light)

    Huitzilopochtli

    (God of War)


Chapter 7

Heaven

  • Cipachtli: Sea Monster

  • Competition between Tecciztecatl & Nanauatl

    • Walk through fire

    • Nanauatl: SUN

    • Tecciztecatl: MOON

Earth

Underworld


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