Colonialism and decolonization
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Colonialism and Decolonization. “Precursor to Poverty?”. Colonialism. Pre-Colonial heritages Analysis from reading Discourses of colonialism: racism The end of colonialism/the beginning of development. Ancient Kingdoms of Africa. Colonial structures. Institutions of colonialism

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Colonialism and Decolonization

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Colonialism and decolonization

Colonialism and Decolonization

“Precursor to Poverty?”


Colonialism

Colonialism

  • Pre-Colonial heritages

  • Analysis from reading

  • Discourses of colonialism: racism

  • The end of colonialism/the beginning of development


Ancient kingdoms of africa

Ancient Kingdoms of Africa


Colonial structures

Colonial structures

  • Institutions of colonialism

  • Discourses of colonialism

  • Legacies of colonialism


Discourses of colonialism racism

Discourses of Colonialism: Racism

  • Comte de Gobineau (1816-1882)

    • “Essai sur l’Inegalite des Races Humaines”

    • Precursor to German theories of Aryan superiority

  • Eugenics: racial differences and purity.

    • Natural selection good/Benevolence bad

  • Geography’s ugly past:

    • Smith’s First Book in Geography (1853) (overhead)

    • Johnson New Illustrated Family Atlas of the World (1877)

    • “exploration”

    • Environmental determinism


Discourses of colonialism racism1

Discourses of Colonialism: Racism

  • Rudyard Kipling (1899): “White Man’s Burden” (overhead)

  • John Stuart Mill (1861) Considerations on Representative Government

  • Lady Simon: Slavery: critique of the gov. of Liberia

  • Albert Schweitzer: benevolent but paternalistic (overhead)

  • Edward Said :

    • “Orientalism” (1978) defining what is Western in contrast to the “Other”

    • “Culture and Imperialism” (1994)

      • Joseph Conrad, Jane Austen, etc. (overhead)


Discourses and development

Discourses and development

  • How do words, ideas, writing and other texts influence our thinking and societal outcomes?

    • How do “cultural” elements create invisible assumptions?

    • Who has the power to control discourses?

    • Role of the media and other modern communication

  • Paying attention to the words and ideas that we take for granted….”deconstructing” the power relations inherent in discourses.

  • Apply these notions to development


The end of colonialism

The End of Colonialism

  • World War II provides background conditions

    • Victory over Axis and Japan

    • European countries are devastated, exhausted, and broke.

      • Marshall plan tradeoff: Europe opens its previously closed trading blocks

      • Europe can no longer control colonies economically and politically—anti colonial movements


The end of colonialism1

The End of Colonialism

  • Cold war emerges

    • First and Second Worlds

    • Truman Doctrine (1949)

      • Containment

      • Development agenda (overhead)

  • Bretton Woods Institutions (1944)

    • IMF: International Monetary Fund

    • World Bank

    • GATT:General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade

  • UN (1945)


  • Locating the third world

    Locating the “third world”

    • Origins of the term

    • Physical mapping (overhead)

    • Social mapping

    • Better terms now?


    Theories and practices of development an historical overview

    Theories and Practices of Development-an historical overview

    • Roots in Pre-20th Century Western Economics

      • Mercantilism

      • Physiocrats

      • Classical economics

        • Adam Smith

        • Karl Marx


    Theories and practices of development an historical overview1

    Theories and Practices of Development-an historical overview

    • 1950’s

      • Modernization Theory:

        • Walt Rostow: Stages of Economic Growth

        • Talcott Parsons: societal complexity, individualism

        • Weber: rational action

        • Key discourses?

        • Results for development: industrialization/infrastructure

      • Neoclassical Theory (the Marginalist School)

        • Key discourses?

        • Results for development:

          • Export cropping and industry

          • Single resources economies


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