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The Human Body: An Orientation. P A R T A. Overview of Anatomy and Physiology. Anatomy – the study of the structure of body parts and their relationships to one another Gross or macroscopic Microscopic Developmental Physiology – the study of the function of the body parts. Gross Anatomy.

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The human body an orientation

The Human Body: An Orientation

P A R T A


Overview of anatomy and physiology

Overview of Anatomy and Physiology

  • Anatomy – the study of the structure of body parts and their relationships to one another

    • Gross or macroscopic

    • Microscopic

    • Developmental

  • Physiology – the study of the function of the body parts


Gross anatomy

Gross Anatomy

  • Regional – study of the structures in one specific part of the body

    • Neck, head, etc

  • Systemic – gross anatomy of the system of the body

  • Surface – study of internal structures as they relate to the overlying skin


Microscopic anatomy

Microscopic Anatomy

  • Cytology – study of the cell

  • Histology – study of tissues


Developmental anatomy

Developmental Anatomy

  • Study of the changes in form from conception to physical maturity

    • Embryology – study of developmental changes of the body before birth


Specialized branches of anatomy

Specialized Branches of Anatomy

  • Pathological anatomy – study of structural changes caused by disease

  • Radiographic anatomy – study of internal structures visualized by specialized scanning procedures such as X-ray, MRI, and CT scans

  • Molecular biology – study of anatomical structures at a subcellular level


Physiology

Physiology

  • Systemic physiology –study of the operation of specific organ systems

    • Renal – kidney function

    • Neurophysiology – workings of the nervous system

    • Cardiovascular – operation of the heart and blood vessels

  • Cell physiology

  • Pathological physiology


Physiology1

Physiology

  • Understanding physiology also requires a knowledge of physics, which explains

    • electrical currents

    • blood pressure

    • the way muscle uses bone for movement


Principle of complementarity

Principle of Complementarity

  • Anatomy and physiology are closely related

  • What a structure can do depends on its specific form

    • Because enamel is a very hard structure we can masticate hard things


The human body an orientation

Smooth muscle cell

Molecules

Cellular level

Cells are made up of

molecules.

2

Atoms

1

Chemical level

Atoms combine to

form molecules.

Smooth

muscle

tissue

3

Tissue level

Tissues consist of

similar types of cells.

Heart

Cardiovascular

system

Blood

vessels

Epithelial

tissue

Smooth

muscle

tissue

Blood

vessel

(organ)

6

Organismal level

The human organism

is made up of many

organ systems.

Connective

tissue

4

Organ level

Organs are made up

of different types

of tissues.

5

Organ system level

Organ systems consist of

different organs that

work together closely.

Levels of Structural Organization

Figure 1.1


Levels of structural organization

Levels of Structural Organization

  • Chemical – atoms combined to form molecules

  • Cellular – cells are made of molecules

  • Tissue –similar types of cells working together

  • Organ – are made of two or more tissues


Levels of structural organization1

Levels of Structural Organization

  • Organ system – consists of different organs that work closely together

  • Organism – made up of the organ systems. It is the highest level of organization


Integumentary system

Integumentary System

  • Forms the external body covering

  • Composed of the skin, sweat glands, oil glands, hair, and nails

  • Protects deep tissues from injury and synthesizes vitamin D


Skeletal system

Skeletal System

  • Composed of bone, cartilage, and ligaments

  • Protects and supports body organs

  • Provides the framework for muscles

  • Site of blood cell formation

  • Stores minerals


Muscular system

Muscular System

  • Composed of muscles and tendons

  • Provides locomotion, and facial expression

  • Maintains posture

  • Produces heat

  • Provides protection and support


Nervous system

Nervous System

  • Composed of the brain, spinal column, and nerves

  • Is the fast-acting control system of the body

  • Responds to stimuli

  • Interprets environmental stimuli


Cardiovascular system

Cardiovascular System

  • Composed of the heart and blood vessels

  • The heart pumps blood

  • The blood vessels transport blood throughout the body


Lymphatic system

Lymphatic System

  • Composed of red bone marrow, thymus, spleen, lymph nodes, and lymphatic vessels

  • Picks up fluid leaked from blood vessels and returns it to blood

  • Disposes of debris in the lymphatic stream

  • Houses white blood cells involved with immunity


Respiratory system

Respiratory System

  • Composed of the nasal cavity, pharynx, trachea, bronchi, and lungs

  • provides oxygen and removes carbon dioxide

  • Produce sounds


Digestive system

Digestive System

  • Composed of the oral cavity, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, rectum, anus, liver, etc

  • Digests and absorbs food

  • Eliminates indigestible foodstuffs as feces


Urinary system

Urinary System

  • Composed of kidneys, ureteres, urinary bladder, and urethra

  • Eliminates wastes from the body

  • Regulates water, electrolyte, and pH balance of the blood

  • Secrets hormone


Endocrine system

Endocrine System

  • Composed of pineal, pituitary, thyroid, thymus, adrenal glands, pancreas, ovaries, and testis

  • They secrete hormones that will control metabolism, reproduction, growth, etc


Male reproductive system

Male Reproductive System

  • Main function is the production of offspring

  • Testes produce sperm and male sex hormones


Female reproductive system

Female Reproductive System

  • Composed of mammary glands, ovaries, uterine tubes, uterus, and vagina

  • Main function is the production of offspring

  • Ovaries produce eggs and female sex hormones

  • Mammary glands produce milk to nourish the newborn


Organ systems interrelationships

Organ Systems Interrelationships

  • Nutrients and oxygen are distributed by the blood

  • Metabolic wastes are eliminated by the urinary and respiratory systems

Figure 1.2


Organ systems interrelationships1

Organ Systems Interrelationships

  • The integumentary system protects the body from the external environment

  • Digestive and respiratory systems, in contact with the external environment, take in nutrients and oxygen


Organ systems interrelationships2

Organ Systems Interrelationships

  • Nutrients and oxygen are distributed by the blood

  • Metabolic wastes are eliminated by the urinary and respiratory systems


Necessary life functions

Necessary Life Functions

  • Maintaining boundaries between external and internal environments

    • Cellular level – accomplished by plasma membranes

    • Organismal level – accomplished by the skin

  • Movement – locomotion, propulsion (peristalsis), and contractility


Necessary life functions1

Necessary Life Functions

  • Responsiveness – ability to sense changes in the environment and respond to them

  • Digestion – breakdown of ingested food

  • Metabolism – all the chemical reactions that occur in the body

  • Excretion – removal of wastes from the body


Necessary life functions2

Necessary Life Functions

  • Reproduction – cellular and organismal levels

    • Cellular – an original cell divides and produces two identical daughter cells

    • Organismal – sperm and egg unite to make a whole new person

  • Growth – increase in size of a body part or of the organism


Survival needs

Survival Needs

  • Nutrients – needed for energy and cell building

  • Oxygen – necessary for metabolic reactions

  • Water – provides the necessary environment for chemical reactions


Survival needs1

Survival Needs

  • Normal body temperature – necessary for chemical reactions to occur at life-sustaining rates

  • Atmospheric pressure – required for proper breathing and gas exchange in the lungs

    • High altitude low atmospheric pressure low oxygen


Homeostasis

Homeostasis

  • Homeostasis – ability to maintain a relatively stable internal environment in an ever-changing outside world

  • The internal environment of the body is in a dynamic state of equilibrium

  • Chemical, thermal, and neural factors interact to maintain homeostasis


Homeostatic control mechanisms

Homeostatic Control Mechanisms

  • Components of control mechanisms:

    • Receptor – monitors the environments and responds to changes (stimuli)

    • Control center – determines the set point at which the variable is maintained

    • Effector – provides the means to respond to stimuli


Homeostatic control mechanism

Homeostatic Control Mechanism

  • Negative Feedback

    • the output shuts off the original stimulus

    • Example: Regulation of room temperature


Positive feedback

Positive Feedback

  • In positive feedback systems, the output enhances or exaggerates the original stimulus

  • Example: Regulation of blood clotting

Figure 1.6


Homeostatic imbalance

Homeostatic Imbalance

  • Disturbance of homeostasis

    • Diseases

  • Aging

    • Slow down of the body’s control mechanisms increase the risk for diseases


Anatomical position

Anatomical Position

  • Body erect, feet slightly apart, palms facing forward, thumbs point away from body

Figure 1.7a


Directional terms

Directional Terms

  • Superior

  • Inferior

  • Anterior

  • Posterior

  • Medial

  • Lateral


Directional terms1

Directional Terms

  • Proximal

  • Distal

  • Superficial

  • Deep


Body planes

Body Planes

  • Sagittal – divides the body into right and left parts

    • Midsagittal or medial

  • Frontal or coronal – divides the body into anterior and posterior parts


Body planes1

Body Planes

  • Transverse or horizontal (cross section) – divides the body into superior and inferior parts

  • Oblique section – cuts the body diagonally


Anatomical variability

Anatomical Variability

  • Humans vary slightly in both external and internal anatomy

  • Over 90% of all anatomical structures match textbook descriptions, but:

    • Nerves or blood vessels may be somewhat out of place

    • Small muscles may be missing

  • Extreme anatomical variations are seldom seen


Body cavities

Cranial cavity

(contains brain)

Thoracic

cavity

(contains

heart

and lungs)

Dorsal

body

cavity

Diaphragm

Vertebral cavity

(contains spinal

cord)

Abdominal cavity

(contains digestive

viscera)

Key:

Pelvic cavity

(contains bladder,

reproductive organs,

and rectum)

Dorsal body cavity

Ventral body cavity

(a) Lateral view

Body Cavities

Body Cavities

Figure 1.9a


The human body an orientation

Cranial

cavity

Vertebral

cavity

Superior

mediastinum

Thoracic

cavity

(contains

heart

and lungs)

Pleural

cavity

Pericardial

cavity within

the mediastinum

Diaphragm

Ventral

body cavity

(thoracic

and

abdomino-

pelvic

cavities)

Abdominal cavity

(contains digestive

visceral

Abdomino-

pelvic

Cavity

(peritoneal

Cavity)

Key:

Pelvic cavity

(contains bladder,

reproductive organs,

and rectum)

Dorsal body cavity

Ventral body cavity

(b) Anterior view

Figure 1.9b


Body cavities1

Body Cavities

  • Dorsal cavity protects the nervous system, and is divided into two subdivisions

    • Cranial cavity – within the skull; encases the brain

    • Vertebral cavity – runs within the vertebral column; encases the spinal cord


Body cavities2

Body Cavities

  • Ventral cavity houses the internal organs (viscera), and is divided into two subdivisions

    • Thoracic

    • Abdominopelvic


Body cavities3

Body Cavities

  • Thoracic cavity is subdivided into

    • Pleural cavities (2)– each houses a lung

    • Mediastinum – between the pleural cavities.

      • Houses esophagus, trachea, etc

      • Pericardial cavity – encloses the heart.


Body cavities4

Body Cavities

  • Abdominopelvic cavity is separated from the thoracic cavity by the diaphragm

  • It is composed of two subdivisions

    • Abdominal cavity – contains the stomach, intestines, spleen, liver, and other organs

    • Pelvic cavity – lies within the pelvis and contains the bladder, reproductive organs, and rectum


Heart serosa

Heart Serosa

Figure 1.10b


Figure 24 2d mesenteries

Figure 24-2d Mesenteries

Falciformligament

Diaphragm

Liver

Lesseromentum

Stomach

Pancreas

Transversemesocolon

Duodenum

Transversecolon

Mesenteryproper

Greateromentum

Sigmoidmesocolon

Parietalperitoneum

Rectum

Small intestine

Urinarybladder

Uterus

A sagittal section showing the mesenteries ofan adult. Notice that the pancreas, duodenum,and rectum are retroperitoneal.


Ventral body cavity membranes

Ventral Body Cavity Membranes

  • Serous membrane or serosa

    • Parietal layer lines internal body walls

    • Visceral serosa covers the internal organs

    • Serous fluid – fills the cavity between the parietal and visceral layers


Other body cavities

Other Body Cavities

  • Oral and digestive – mouth and cavities of the digestive organs

  • Nasal –located within and posterior to the nose

  • Orbital – house the eyes

  • Middle ear – contains bones (ossicles) that transmit sound vibrations

  • Synovial – joint cavities


Abdominopelvic quadrants

Abdominopelvic Quadrants

  • Right upper

  • Left upper

  • Right lower

  • Left lower

Figure 1.12


Abdominopelvic regions

Abdominopelvic Regions

Figure 1.11a


Organs of the abdominopelvic regions

Organs of the Abdominopelvic Regions

Figure 1.11b


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