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Environmental impact of Gifts In Kind. Tom Keffer, Phd Senior Advisor, Mercy Corps. This presentation available at http://www.threefools.org/projects/gik. Approach. Bounding the problem Assumptions Six different case studies Two in detail Conclusions Lessons Learned.

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environmental impact of gifts in kind

Environmental impact ofGifts In Kind

Tom Keffer, PhdSenior Advisor, Mercy Corps

This presentation available at http://www.threefools.org/projects/gik

approach
Approach
  • Bounding the problem
  • Assumptions
  • Six different case studies
    • Two in detail
  • Conclusions
  • Lessons Learned

Environmental Impact of Gifts In Kind

bounding the problem
Bounding the problem
  • Impacts we could consider
    • Energy impact
    • CO2 emissions
    • End-of-life issues
    • Packaging

Environmental Impact of Gifts In Kind

operation boundaries
Operation Boundaries
  • Direct emissions
    • Emissions from sources that are owned or controlled by the agency / company
  • Electricity indirect
    • Emissions from the generation of electricity consumed by the agency / company
  • Other indirect
    • Emissions done on behalf of the agency / company

Guidelines from The Greenhouse Gas Protocolby the World Resources Institute

Environmental Impact of Gifts In Kind

assumptions
Assumptions

(1) DEFRA Guidelines for reporting GHG emissions

(2) Faiz, et al.: Mercedes 1217 (7 tonne)

(3) Faiz, et al.: Tata 1201 (5 tonne)

(*) See appendix

Environmental Impact of Gifts In Kind

case study 1
Case study #1
  • One 40’ container, 16,898 kg (~37,000 lbs)
  • Hygiene & School kits
  • Baltimore, MD to Cobán, Guatemala, where it was then distributed by Mercy Corps

Environmental Impact of Gifts In Kind

case 1 route
Case #1: Route

Leg 1

Leg 2

Leg 4

Leg 3

Environmental Impact of Gifts In Kind

case 1 cont d
Case #1, cont’d
  • Leg 1: Baltimore to Port Everglades (~1,600 km)
    • Truck
      • Freight class 60
      • Cost: ~$1,700
      • CO2: 1.8 tonnes (6 mpg, 16 T load)
    • Rail
      • <5600 ft³ capacity (very small for rail)
      • Cost ~$3,300
      • CO2: 0.7 tonnes

Environmental Impact of Gifts In Kind

case 1 cont d1
Case #1, cont’d
  • Leg 2: Port Everglades to Puerto Barrios, Guatemala (1,600 km)
    • Ship
      • CO2 0.4 tonnes
  • Leg 3: Puerto Barrios to Cobán (320 km)
    • Truck
      • CO2: 0.8 tonnes
  • Leg 4: Cobán to local schools
    • Pickup Truck
      • Alta Verapaz Department is 8686 km2
      • Assume average trucking distance 50 km one way
      • CO2: 1.1 tonnes

Environmental Impact of Gifts In Kind

case 1 summary
Case #1: summary

Environmental Impact of Gifts In Kind

slide11
But,…
  • The materials were purchased from retail stores throughout the USA, then shipped to the warehouse in MD!
  • Assumptions
    • Each kit weighs about 1kg
    • One trip to the store per 25 kits
    • 680 trips

Environmental Impact of Gifts In Kind

but cont d
But, … cont’d
  • Collection
    • 680 trips @ 25 mpg each
    • 20 km RT each
    • 326 gallons of gas
    • 2.8 tonnes of CO2
  • Shipment
    • 680 packages 1,000 km each
    • ~1.4 tonnes of CO2

Environmental Impact of Gifts In Kind

now look at our graph
Now look at our graph…

Environmental Impact of Gifts In Kind

case 1 summary1
Case #1: summary
  • Dominated by aggregation and delivery to Maryland

Environmental Impact of Gifts In Kind

case study 2
Case study #2
  • 95 boxes of condoms
  • 1,002 kg
  • Donation of surplus product
    • Would have been destroyed

Environmental Impact of Gifts In Kind

case 2 route
Case #2: route

Leg 2

Leg 1

Leg 3

Leg 4

Environmental Impact of Gifts In Kind

case 2 route1
Case #2: route
  • Leg 1
    • Trucked from Eufaula, Alabama to Toronto, Canada
    • 1,800 km
    • 0.11 T CO2
  • Leg 2
    • Air shipped Toronto to London
    • 5,800 km
    • 3.3 T CO2
  • Leg 3
    • London to Nairobi
    • 6,800 km
    • 3.9 T CO2
  • Leg 4
    • Trucked from Nairobi to IDP camp in Nakuru
    • 160 km
    • 0.02 T CO2

Environmental Impact of Gifts In Kind

case 2 summary
Case 2: summary

Environmental Impact of Gifts In Kind

case 2 summary1
Case #2: summary
  • Nearly as much CO2 (7.3 Tonnes) as Case #1 (8.2 Tonnes) despite weighing 5% as much
    • (although the shipment did go 4 times farther)

Environmental Impact of Gifts In Kind

all cases
All cases

Environmental Impact of Gifts In Kind

cost vs co 2 emissions
Cost vs CO2 emissions

Assumes $3/gal gas + $10/UPS shipment

Environmental Impact of Gifts In Kind

computers recycle or destroy
Computers: recycle or destroy?
  • Energy
    • One desktop computer requires 240 kg of fossil fuels (about 0.74 T CO2, if it all went in the atmosphere)
    • Four times what it will use in its lifetime
  • Lead - Older monitors can contain 4-8 lbs.
  • Mercury - Flat panel displays, wiring boards
  • PVCs – about 14 lbs in an average computer
    • Dioxin formed if it is burned
  • Barium
    • Used on the front panel of a CRT
  • Conclusion:
    • Way better to recycle and ship to Mongolia than buy a new one!

Environmental Impact of Gifts In Kind

condoms recycle or destroy
Condoms: recycle or destroy?
  • Made from natural latex
    • Nearly a sink of CO2
    • Natural: 1.78 kg CO2-E / kg
  • Perspective:
    • 2.5 T of fuel was used to move 1 T of condoms to Kenya that took 1.8 T of CO2 to produce

Environmental Impact of Gifts In Kind

lessons learned 1
Lessons learned - 1
  • Air shipment trumps everything
  • “Last mile” problem
    • Energy and CO2 budget for shipping can be dominated by pickup and delivery logistics
      • Long haul hardly matters if done by ship or rail
    • Done by inefficient transport modes
      • Pickups and “India” trucks
    • “Spoke” problem
      • Shipments broken up into smaller, less efficient, packaging
  • Net energy savings only for energy-intensive products

Environmental Impact of Gifts In Kind

lessons learned 2
Lessons learned - 2
  • Price is a reasonable metric of the environmental cost of shipping
    • About 0.6 tonnes of CO2 / $1k
    • But, gets distorted
      • Well intentioned donations
      • Pricing set at the margin
      • Media needs
  • Early ownership of GIK helps
    • But, limits opportunity to mix and match

Environmental Impact of Gifts In Kind

organization boundaries redux
Organization boundaries redux
  • Are we responsible for emissions done on our behalf by transportation sectors?
    • What about situations with “zero marginal CO2 cost?
  • Case study: IKEA
    • 66% of emissions are from customer travel!
    • Influenced store location decisions, home delivery options
  • Double counting possible

Environmental Impact of Gifts In Kind

resources
Resources
  • Greenhouse Gas Protocol Initiative http://www.ghgprotocol.org. In particular, their Corporate Accounting And Reporting Standard: http://www.ghgprotocol.org/files/ghg-protocol-revised.pdf.
  • Red, White and “Green”: the Cost of Carbon in the Global Wine Trade http://www.wine-economics.org/workingpapers/AAWE_WP09.pdf
  • DEFRA Guidelines for Company Reporting on Greenhouse Gas Emissions Annexes updated July 2005 http://www.defra.gov.uk/environment/business/reporting/pdf/envrpgas-annexes.pdf

Environmental Impact of Gifts In Kind

truck efficiency
Truck efficiency
  • Long-haul semi in the US gets 6-8 mpg
  • Carry 20-40 tonnes
  • Works out to 20-53 gCO2/(km-tonne)
  • I used 63 (light loads, dead heading)

Environmental Impact of Gifts In Kind

co 2 vs carbon
CO2vs. Carbon
  • Most emissions in the literature are quoted in metric tonnes of CO2-equiv (t CO2-eq)
    • Other GHGs converted to equivalents of CO2
    • Metric tonnes
    • This has been the trend
  • A few quotes are in metric tonnes of carbon equivalents
    • Useful in calculations involving carbon cycles
    • Multiply by 3.67 to convert to t CO2-eq

Environmental Impact of Gifts In Kind

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