Environmental impact of gifts in kind
Download
1 / 31

Environmental impact of Gifts In Kind - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 68 Views
  • Uploaded on

Environmental impact of Gifts In Kind. Tom Keffer, Phd Senior Advisor, Mercy Corps. This presentation available at http://www.threefools.org/projects/gik. Approach. Bounding the problem Assumptions Six different case studies Two in detail Conclusions Lessons Learned.

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about ' Environmental impact of Gifts In Kind' - kaye-carrillo


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
Environmental impact of gifts in kind

Environmental impact ofGifts In Kind

Tom Keffer, PhdSenior Advisor, Mercy Corps

This presentation available at http://www.threefools.org/projects/gik


Approach
Approach

  • Bounding the problem

  • Assumptions

  • Six different case studies

    • Two in detail

  • Conclusions

  • Lessons Learned

Environmental Impact of Gifts In Kind


Bounding the problem
Bounding the problem

  • Impacts we could consider

    • Energy impact

    • CO2 emissions

    • End-of-life issues

    • Packaging

Environmental Impact of Gifts In Kind


Operation boundaries
Operation Boundaries

  • Direct emissions

    • Emissions from sources that are owned or controlled by the agency / company

  • Electricity indirect

    • Emissions from the generation of electricity consumed by the agency / company

  • Other indirect

    • Emissions done on behalf of the agency / company

Guidelines from The Greenhouse Gas Protocolby the World Resources Institute

Environmental Impact of Gifts In Kind


Assumptions
Assumptions

(1) DEFRA Guidelines for reporting GHG emissions

(2) Faiz, et al.: Mercedes 1217 (7 tonne)

(3) Faiz, et al.: Tata 1201 (5 tonne)

(*) See appendix

Environmental Impact of Gifts In Kind


Case study 1
Case study #1

  • One 40’ container, 16,898 kg (~37,000 lbs)

  • Hygiene & School kits

  • Baltimore, MD to Cobán, Guatemala, where it was then distributed by Mercy Corps

Environmental Impact of Gifts In Kind


Case 1 route
Case #1: Route

Leg 1

Leg 2

Leg 4

Leg 3

Environmental Impact of Gifts In Kind


Case 1 cont d
Case #1, cont’d

  • Leg 1: Baltimore to Port Everglades (~1,600 km)

    • Truck

      • Freight class 60

      • Cost: ~$1,700

      • CO2: 1.8 tonnes (6 mpg, 16 T load)

    • Rail

      • <5600 ft³ capacity (very small for rail)

      • Cost ~$3,300

      • CO2: 0.7 tonnes

Environmental Impact of Gifts In Kind


Case 1 cont d1
Case #1, cont’d

  • Leg 2: Port Everglades to Puerto Barrios, Guatemala (1,600 km)

    • Ship

      • CO2 0.4 tonnes

  • Leg 3: Puerto Barrios to Cobán (320 km)

    • Truck

      • CO2: 0.8 tonnes

  • Leg 4: Cobán to local schools

    • Pickup Truck

      • Alta Verapaz Department is 8686 km2

      • Assume average trucking distance 50 km one way

      • CO2: 1.1 tonnes

Environmental Impact of Gifts In Kind


Case 1 summary
Case #1: summary

Environmental Impact of Gifts In Kind


But,…

  • The materials were purchased from retail stores throughout the USA, then shipped to the warehouse in MD!

  • Assumptions

    • Each kit weighs about 1kg

    • One trip to the store per 25 kits

    • 680 trips

Environmental Impact of Gifts In Kind


But cont d
But, … cont’d

  • Collection

    • 680 trips @ 25 mpg each

    • 20 km RT each

    • 326 gallons of gas

    • 2.8 tonnes of CO2

  • Shipment

    • 680 packages 1,000 km each

    • ~1.4 tonnes of CO2

Environmental Impact of Gifts In Kind


Now look at our graph
Now look at our graph…

Environmental Impact of Gifts In Kind


Case 1 summary1
Case #1: summary

  • Dominated by aggregation and delivery to Maryland

Environmental Impact of Gifts In Kind


Case study 2
Case study #2

  • 95 boxes of condoms

  • 1,002 kg

  • Donation of surplus product

    • Would have been destroyed

Environmental Impact of Gifts In Kind


Case 2 route
Case #2: route

Leg 2

Leg 1

Leg 3

Leg 4

Environmental Impact of Gifts In Kind


Case 2 route1
Case #2: route

  • Leg 1

    • Trucked from Eufaula, Alabama to Toronto, Canada

    • 1,800 km

    • 0.11 T CO2

  • Leg 2

    • Air shipped Toronto to London

    • 5,800 km

    • 3.3 T CO2

  • Leg 3

    • London to Nairobi

    • 6,800 km

    • 3.9 T CO2

  • Leg 4

    • Trucked from Nairobi to IDP camp in Nakuru

    • 160 km

    • 0.02 T CO2

Environmental Impact of Gifts In Kind


Case 2 summary
Case 2: summary

Environmental Impact of Gifts In Kind


Case 2 summary1
Case #2: summary

  • Nearly as much CO2 (7.3 Tonnes) as Case #1 (8.2 Tonnes) despite weighing 5% as much

    • (although the shipment did go 4 times farther)

Environmental Impact of Gifts In Kind


All cases
All cases

Environmental Impact of Gifts In Kind


Cost vs co 2 emissions
Cost vs CO2 emissions

Assumes $3/gal gas + $10/UPS shipment

Environmental Impact of Gifts In Kind


Computers recycle or destroy
Computers: recycle or destroy?

  • Energy

    • One desktop computer requires 240 kg of fossil fuels (about 0.74 T CO2, if it all went in the atmosphere)

    • Four times what it will use in its lifetime

  • Lead - Older monitors can contain 4-8 lbs.

  • Mercury - Flat panel displays, wiring boards

  • PVCs – about 14 lbs in an average computer

    • Dioxin formed if it is burned

  • Barium

    • Used on the front panel of a CRT

  • Conclusion:

    • Way better to recycle and ship to Mongolia than buy a new one!

Environmental Impact of Gifts In Kind


Condoms recycle or destroy
Condoms: recycle or destroy?

  • Made from natural latex

    • Nearly a sink of CO2

    • Natural: 1.78 kg CO2-E / kg

  • Perspective:

    • 2.5 T of fuel was used to move 1 T of condoms to Kenya that took 1.8 T of CO2 to produce

Environmental Impact of Gifts In Kind



Lessons learned 1
Lessons learned - 1

  • Air shipment trumps everything

  • “Last mile” problem

    • Energy and CO2 budget for shipping can be dominated by pickup and delivery logistics

      • Long haul hardly matters if done by ship or rail

    • Done by inefficient transport modes

      • Pickups and “India” trucks

    • “Spoke” problem

      • Shipments broken up into smaller, less efficient, packaging

  • Net energy savings only for energy-intensive products

Environmental Impact of Gifts In Kind


Lessons learned 2
Lessons learned - 2

  • Price is a reasonable metric of the environmental cost of shipping

    • About 0.6 tonnes of CO2 / $1k

    • But, gets distorted

      • Well intentioned donations

      • Pricing set at the margin

      • Media needs

  • Early ownership of GIK helps

    • But, limits opportunity to mix and match

Environmental Impact of Gifts In Kind


Organization boundaries redux
Organization boundaries redux

  • Are we responsible for emissions done on our behalf by transportation sectors?

    • What about situations with “zero marginal CO2 cost?

  • Case study: IKEA

    • 66% of emissions are from customer travel!

    • Influenced store location decisions, home delivery options

  • Double counting possible

Environmental Impact of Gifts In Kind



Resources
Resources

  • Greenhouse Gas Protocol Initiative http://www.ghgprotocol.org. In particular, their Corporate Accounting And Reporting Standard: http://www.ghgprotocol.org/files/ghg-protocol-revised.pdf.

  • Red, White and “Green”: the Cost of Carbon in the Global Wine Trade http://www.wine-economics.org/workingpapers/AAWE_WP09.pdf

  • DEFRA Guidelines for Company Reporting on Greenhouse Gas Emissions Annexes updated July 2005 http://www.defra.gov.uk/environment/business/reporting/pdf/envrpgas-annexes.pdf

Environmental Impact of Gifts In Kind


Truck efficiency
Truck efficiency

  • Long-haul semi in the US gets 6-8 mpg

  • Carry 20-40 tonnes

  • Works out to 20-53 gCO2/(km-tonne)

  • I used 63 (light loads, dead heading)

Environmental Impact of Gifts In Kind


Co 2 vs carbon
CO2vs. Carbon

  • Most emissions in the literature are quoted in metric tonnes of CO2-equiv (t CO2-eq)

    • Other GHGs converted to equivalents of CO2

    • Metric tonnes

    • This has been the trend

  • A few quotes are in metric tonnes of carbon equivalents

    • Useful in calculations involving carbon cycles

    • Multiply by 3.67 to convert to t CO2-eq

Environmental Impact of Gifts In Kind


ad