Aperture Pupil (stop). Exit Pupil. Entrance Pupil. Telescope. The entrance pupil often is the entrance lens diameter (most expensive/difficult-to-fabricate element) Magnifying the angle of the incident light The Exit pupil should match the field of view of eye
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Fraction of solid angle
Amount of light collected
the f-number is defined as
Astigmatism often arises when focusing with a mirror
with an angle
Ray-tracing and computer-aided design