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Chapter 8 PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Chapter 8. Depreciation, Cost Recovery, Amortization, and Depletion. The Big Picture (slide 1 of 2). Dr. Cliff Payne purchases and places in service in his dental practice the following fixed assets during the current year: Office furniture and fixtures $ 70,000

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Chapter 8

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Chapter 8

Chapter 8

Depreciation, Cost Recovery, Amortization, and Depletion


The big picture slide 1 of 2

The Big Picture (slide 1 of 2)

Dr. Cliff Payne purchases and places in service in his dental practice the following fixed assets during the current year:

Office furniture and fixtures $ 70,000

Computers and peripheral equipment 67,085

Dental equipment 475,000

Using his financial reporting system, he concludes that the depreciation expense on Schedule C of Form 1040 is $91,298.

Office furniture and fixtures ($70,000 X 14.29%) $10,003

Computers and peripheral equipment ($67,085 X 20%) 13,417

Dental equipment ($475,000 X 14.29%) 67,878

$91,298

2


The big picture slide 2 of 2

The Big Picture (slide 2 of 2)

In addition, during the current year, Dr. Payne purchased another personal residence for $300,000

He converts his original residence to rental property.

He also purchased a condo for $170,000 near his office that he is going to rent.

Has Dr. Payne correctly calculated the depreciation expense for his dental practice?

Will he be able to deduct any depreciation expense for his rental properties?

Read the chapter and formulate your response.

3


Cost recovery

Cost Recovery

Recovery of the cost of business or income-producing assets is through:

Cost recovery or depreciation: tangible assets

Amortization: intangible assets

Depletion: natural resources

4


Nature of property

Nature of Property

  • Property includes both realty (real property) and personalty (personal property)

    • Realty generally includes land and buildings permanently affixed to the land

    • Personalty is defined as any asset that is not realty

      • Personalty includes furniture, machinery, equipment, and many other types of assets

  • Personalty (or personal property) should not be confused with personal use property

    • Personal use property is any property (realty or personalty) that is held for personal use rather than for use in a trade or business or an income-producing activity

      • Write-offs are not allowed for personal use assets


General considerations slide 1 of 3

General Considerations(slide 1 of 3)

  • Basis in an asset is reduced by the amount of cost recovery that is allowed and by not less than the allowable amount

    • Allowed cost recovery is cost recovery actually taken

    • Allowable cost recovery is amount that could have been taken under the applicable cost recovery method

  • If no cost recovery is claimed on property

    • The basis of the property must still be reduced by the amount that should have been deducted

      • i.e., The allowable cost recovery


General considerations slide 2 of 3

General Considerations(slide 2 of 3)

  • If personal use assets are converted to business or income-producing use

    • Basis for cost recovery and for loss is lower of

      • Adjusted basis or

      • Fair market value at time property was converted

    • Losses that occurred prior to conversion can not be recognized for tax purposes through cost recovery


General considerations slide 3 of 3

General Considerations(slide 3 of 3)

  • MACRS applies to:

    • Assets used in a trade or business or for the production of income

    • Assets subject to wear and tear, obsolescence, etc.

    • Assets that have a determinable useful life or decline in value on a predictable basis

    • Assets that are tangible personalty or realty


The big picture example 3 cost recovery basis for personal use assets converted to business use

The Big Picture - Example 3Cost Recovery Basis for Personal Use Assets Converted to Business Use

Return to the facts of The Big Picture p. 8-2.

Five years ago Dr. Payne purchased his personal residence for $250,000.

This year Dr. Payne found a larger home that he acquired for his personal residence.

Unfortunately he cannot sell his original residence and recover his purchase price of $250,000.

The residence was appraised at $180,000.

Instead of continuing to try to sell the original residence, Dr. Payne converted it to rental property.

The basis for cost recovery of the rental property is $180,000 because the fair market value is less than the adjusted basis.

The $70,000 decline in value is deemed to be personal (since it occurred while the property was held for personal use by Dr. Payne) and therefore nondeductible.

9


Macrs personalty

MACRS characteristics:

MACRS Personalty .

Statutory lives: 3, 5, 7, 10 yrs 15, 20 yrs

Method: 200% DB 150% DB

Convention: Half Yr or Mid-Quarter

DB = declining balance with switch to straight-line

Straight-line depreciation may be elected

MACRS Personalty


Half year convention

Half-Year Convention

  • General rule for personalty

  • Assets treated as if placed in service (or disposed of) in the middle of taxable year regardless of when actually placed in service (or disposed of)


Example half year convention

Example: Half-Year Convention

  • Purchased and placed an asset in service on March 15 (Tax year end is December 31)

    • Treated as placed in service June 30

    • Six months cost recovery in year 1 (and year disposed of, if within recovery period)


Additional first year depreciation slide 1 of 2

Additional First-Year Depreciation (slide 1 of 2)

  • 50% additional first-year depreciation has been allowed for several years

    • The Small Business Jobs Act of 2010 extended additional first-year depreciation for one more year

      • Effective for qualified property acquired and placed in service before January 1, 2011

  • Most recently, the Tax Relief Act of 2010 extended additional first-year depreciation for 2011

    • Increases the percentage from 50% to 100%

    • Effective for qualified property placed in service after Sept. 8, 2010 and before Jan. 1, 2012

  • The Act also extends additional first-year depreciation for 2012, but at the 50% rate

    • Effective for qualified property placed in service after Dec. 31, 2011 and before Jan. 1, 2013


Additional first year depreciation slide 2 of 2

Additional First-Year Depreciation (slide 2 of 2)

Additional first-year depreciation allows an additional percentage (50% or 100%) of cost recovery in year asset is placed in service

Qualified property includes most types of new property other than buildings

Property that is used but new to the taxpayer does not qualify

14


Example additional first year depreciation

Maple Company acquires a 5-year class asset on March 20, 2010, for $20,000. Maple’s cost recovery deduction for 2010 is computed as follows:

50% additional first-year

depreciation ($20,000 X .50) $10,000

MACRS cost recovery

[($20,000 - $10,000) X .20 (Table 8.1)] 2,000

Total cost recovery $12,000

Example: Additional First-Year Depreciation


Mid quarter convention

Mid-Quarter Convention

  • Applies when more than 40% of personalty is placed in service during last quarter of year

  • Assets treated as if placed into service (or disposed of) in the middle of the quarter in which they were actually placed in service (or disposed of)


Example mid quarter convention

Example: Mid-Quarter Convention

  • Business with 12/31 year end purchased and placed in service the following used 5-year class assets:

    • Asset 1: on 3/28 for $50,000, and

    • Asset 2: on 12/28 for $100,000

  • More than 40% placed in service in last quarter; therefore, mid-quarter convention used:

    • Asset 1: $50,000 × (.20 × 200% × 10.5/12) = $17,500, or

      $50,000 × 35% (Table 8.2) = $17,500

    • Asset 2: $100,000 × (.20 × 200% × 1.5/12) = $5,000, or

      $100,000 × .05 (Table 8.2) = $5,000


  • Macrs realty slide 1 of 2

    MACRS characteristics:

    MACRS Realty

    Residential RentalNonresid. Realty

    Statutory lives: 27.5 yrs 31.5 yrs or 39 yrs

    Method: Straight-line

    Convention: Mid-month

    Residential rental real estate

    Includes property where 80% or more of gross rental revenues are from nontransient dwelling units

    e.g., Apartment building

    MACRS Realty (slide 1 of 2)


    Macrs realty slide 2 of 2

    MACRS-Realty (slide 2 of 2)

    • Mid-month Convention

      • Property placed in service at any time during a month is treated as if it was placed in service in the middle of the month

      • Example: Business building placed in service April 25 is treated as placed in service April 15


    Optional straight line election

    Optional Straight-line Election

    • May elect straight-line rather than accelerated depreciation on personalty placed in service during year

      • Use the class life of the asset for the recovery period

      • Use half-year or mid-quarter convention as applicable

      • Election is made annually by class of property


    Farm property

    Farm Property

    • Generally, for farm assets use:

      • MACRS 150% declining-balance method for personalty

        • MACRS straight-line method is required for any tree or vine bearing fruits or nuts

      • Straight line method over the normal periods (27.5 years and 39 years) for real property

      • If the election is made to not have the uniform capitalization rules apply, alternative depreciation system (ADS) straight-line method must be used


    Leasehold improvement property slide 1 of 2

    Leasehold Improvement Property (slide 1 of 2)

    • If lessor is owner of leasehold improvement property, depreciation is calculated as follows:

      • Real Property – Use straight-line method over 27.5 or 39 year statutory recovery periods

      • Tangible personal property – Use the shorter MACRS lives and accelerated methods

    • When these improvements are disposed of or abandoned by the lessor due to lease termination

      • Property is treated as disposed of by the lessor

      • A loss can be taken for the unrecovered basis


    Leasehold improvement property slide 2 of 2

    Leasehold Improvement Property (slide 2 of 2)

    • If lessee is owner of leasehold improvement property

      • Costs of leasehold improvements are recovered in accordance with the general cost recovery rules

        • Cost recovery period is determined without regard to the lease term

      • Any unrecovered basis in the leasehold improvement property not retained by the lessee is deducted in the year the lease is terminated


    Election to expense assets section 179 slide 1 of 5

    Election to Expense Assets -Section 179 (slide 1 of 5)

    • General rules

      • Can elect to immediately expense up to $500,000 (in 2010 and 2011) of business tangible personalty placed in service during the year

      • Cannot use § 179 for most realty or production of income property


    Election to expense assets section 179 slide 2 of 5

    Election to Expense Assets -Section 179 (slide 2 of 5)

    • Section 179 general rules

      • Amount expensed reduces depreciable basis

      • Any elected § 179 expense is taken before additional first-year depreciation is computed

        • The base for calculating the standard MACRS deduction is net of the § 179 expense and the additional first-year depreciation (100% in 2011 and 50% in 2012).


    Election to expense assets section 179 slide 3 of 5

    Election to Expense Assets -Section 179 (slide 3 of 5)

    • Annual limitations:

      • Expense limitation ($500,000 for 2010 and 2011) is reduced by amount of § 179 property placed in service during year that exceeds $2,000,000

    • Example: In 2010, taxpayer placed in service $2,015,000 of § 179 property.

      • The § 179 expense limit is reduced to $485,000

        • [$500,000 – ($2,015,000 – $2,000,000)]


    Election to expense assets section 179 slide 4 of 5

    Election to Expense Assets -Section 179 (slide 4 of 5)

    • Annual limitations:

      • Election to expense cannot exceed taxable income (before § 179) of taxpayer’s trades or businesses

        • Any amount expensed under § 179 over taxable income limitation may be carried over to subsequent year(s)

        • Amount carried over still reduces basis currently

    • The Small Business Jobs Act of 2010, if elected, expands the definition of property qualifying for § 179 to include

      • Qualified leasehold improvement property,

      • Qualified restaurant property, and

      • Qualified retail improvement property

    • Limited to $250,000 qualified real property

      • § 179 deductions in 2011 attributable to qualified real property that are disallowed under the trade or business income limitation may not be carried over to 2012


    Election to expense assets section 179 slide 5 of 5

    Election to Expense Assets -Section 179 (slide 5 of 5)

    Example: Taxpayer buys 5-year property for $525,000 on August 15, 2011 and elects immediate expensing of the maximum amount. The total deduction for the year is calculated as follows:

    § 179 expense $500,000

    Standard MACRS calculation

    [($525,000 - $500,000) X .20] 5,000

    Total cost recovery allowed in 2010$505,000

    Assumes election is made to not take additional first year depreciation.


    Listed property slide 1 of 4

    Listed Property (slide 1 of 4)

    • There can be substantial limits on cost recovery of assets considered listed property

    • Listed property includes the following:

      • Passenger automobile

      • Other property used as a means of transportation

      • Property used for entertainment, recreation, or amusement

      • Computer or peripheral equipment

      • Cellular telephone


    Listed property slide 2 of 4

    Listed Property (slide 2 of 4)

    • To be considered as predominantly used for business, business use must exceed 50%

      • Use of asset for production of income is not considered in this 50% test

      • However, both business and production of income use percentages are used to compute cost recovery


    Listed property slide 3 of 4

    Listed Property (slide 3 of 4)

    • To be considered as predominantly used for business (cont’d)

      • If 50% test is met, then allowed to use statutory percentage method of cost recovery with some limitations


    Listed property slide 4 of 4

    Listed Property (slide 4 of 4)

    • If asset is not used predominantly for business i.e., business use does not exceed 50%

      • Must use straight-line method

      • If business use falls to 50% or lower after year property is placed in service, must recapture excess cost recovery


    Passenger auto cost recovery limits slide 1 of 7

    For autos placed in service in 2010, cost recovery limits are:

    YearRecovery Limitation

    1 $3,060

    2 4,900

    3 2,950

    Succeeding years until

    the cost is recovered 1,775

    If a passenger auto used predominantly for business qualifies for additional first-year depreciation

    First-year recovery limitation is increased by $8,000

    Limit increases from $3,060 to $11,060 ($3,060 + $8,000).

    Passenger Auto Cost Recovery Limits (slide 1 of 7)


    Passenger auto cost recovery limits slide 2 of 7

    Passenger Auto Cost Recovery Limits (slide 2 of 7)

    • Limits are for 100% business use

      • Must reduce limits by percentage of personal use

    • Limit in the first year includes any amount the taxpayer elects to expense under § 179


    Passenger auto cost recovery limits slide 3 of 7

    Example: Taxpayer acquired an auto in 2010 for $30,000 and used it 80% for business

    2010 cost recovery allowance:

    ($30,000 × 20%) × 80%$4,800

    But deduction is limited to $3,060

    × Business use % × 80%

    Cost recovery allowance$2,448

    Passenger Auto Cost Recovery Limits (slide 3 of 7)


    Passenger auto cost recovery limits slide 4 of 7

    Passenger Auto Cost Recovery Limits (slide 4 of 7)

    • Limit on § 179 deduction

      • For certain vehicles not subject to the statutory dollar limits imposed on passenger automobiles the § 179 deduction is limited to $25,000

        • The limit applies to sport utility vehicles with an unloaded GVW rating of more than 6,000 pounds and not more than 14,000 pounds


    Passenger auto cost recovery limits slide 5 of 7

    Passenger Auto Cost Recovery Limits (slide 5 of 7)

    • Listed property that fails the >50% business usage test in year property is placed in service must be recovered using the straight-line method

      • Such property does not qualify for additional first-year depreciation

    • If the >50% business usage test is failed in a year after the property is placed in service, straight-line method must be used for remainder of property’s life

      • Cost recovery of passenger auto under straight-line listed property rule still subject to annual limits


    Passenger auto cost recovery limits slide 6 of 7

    Passenger Auto Cost Recovery Limits (slide 6 of 7)

    • Change from predominantly business use

      • If the business use percentage falls to 50% or lower after the year the property is placed in service, the property is subject to cost recovery recapture

      • The amount recaptured as ordinary income is the excess cost recovery

        • Excess cost recovery is the excess of the cost recovery deductions taken in prior years using the statutory percentage method over the amount that would have been allowed if the straight-line method had been used


    Passenger auto cost recovery limits slide 7 of 7

    Passenger Auto Cost Recovery Limits (slide 7 of 7)

    • Leased autos subject to inclusion amount rule

      • Using IRS tables, taxpayer has gross income equal to each lease year’s inclusion amount

      • Purpose is to prevent avoidance of cost recovery dollar limits applicable to purchased autos by leasing autos


    Alternative depreciation system ads slide 1 of 2

    Alternative Depreciation System (ADS) (slide 1 of 2)

    • ADS is an alternative depreciation system that is used in calculating depreciation for:

      • Alternative minimum tax (AMT)

      • Assets used predominantly outside the U.S.

      • Property owned by the taxpayer and leased to tax exempt entities

      • Earnings and profits


    Alternative depreciation system ads slide 2 of 2

    Alternative Depreciation System (ADS) (slide 2 of 2)

    • Generally, use straight-line recovery without regard to salvage value

      • For AMT, 150% declining balance is allowed for personalty

      • Half-year, mid-quarter, and mid-month conventions still apply


    Amortization slide 1 of 2

    Amortization (slide 1 of 2)

    • Can claim amortization deduction on § 197 intangibles

      • Use straight-line recovery over 15 years (180 months) beginning in month intangible is acquired

    • Section 197 intangibles include acquired goodwill, going-concern value, trademarks, trade names, etc.


    Amortization slide 2 of 2

    Amortization (slide 2 of 2)

    • Startup expenditures are also partially amortizable under § 195

      • Treatment is available only by election

    • Allows the taxpayer to deduct the lesser of:

      • The amount of startup expenditures, or

      • $5,000, reduced by the amount startup expenditures exceed $50,000

      • Any amounts not deducted may be amortized ratably over 180-months beginning in month trade or business begins


    Depletion slide 1 of 4

    Depletion (slide 1 of 4)

    • Two methods of natural resource depletion

      • Cost: determined by using the adjusted basis of the resource and allocating over the recoverable units

      • Percentage: determined using percentage provided in Code and multiplying by gross income from resource sales


    Depletion slide 2 of 4

    Depletion (slide 2 of 4)

    • Cost depletion

      • Depletion is computed on a per unit basis

      • Per unit amount is determined by dividing the basis of the resource by the estimated recoverable units of resource

        • Number of units sold in year × per unit depletion = depletion for year

      • Total depletion can not exceed total cost of the property


    Depletion slide 3 of 4

    Depletion (slide 3 of 4)

    • Percentage depletion

      • Depletion is computed by using the statutory percentage rate for the type of resource

      • Rate is applied to the gross income from the property


    Depletion slide 4 of 4

    Depletion (slide 4 of 4)

    • Percentage depletion

      • Percentage depletion cannot exceed 50% of the taxable income (before depletion) from the property

      • Percentage depletion reduces basis in property

      • However, total percentage depletion may exceed the total cost of the property

        • Example: Property with zero basis but still generating income


    Intangible drilling costs idc

    Intangible Drilling Costs (IDC)

    • Intangible drilling costs include

      • Costs for making the property ready for drilling

      • Costs of drilling the hole

    • Treatment of IDC

      • Expense in the year incurred, or

      • Capitalize and write off through depletion

    • It is generally advantageous to write off IDC immediately


    The big picture example 45 tax planning

    The Big Picture - Example 45Tax Planning

    Return to the facts of The Big Picture p. 8-2.

    In January 2010, Dr. Payne purchased residential rental property for $170,000 ($20,000 allocated to the land, $150,000 to the building).

    He made a down payment of $25,000 and assumed the seller’s mortgage for the balance.

    Since the property was already occupied, Dr. Payne continued to receive rent of $1,200 per month from the tenant.

    Assume any losses generated by the property are currently deductible and he is in the 28% tax bracket.

    During 2011, Dr. Payne’s expenses were as follows:

    Interest $10,000

    Taxes 800

    Insurance 1,000

    Repairs and maintenance 2,200

    Depreciation ($150,000 X .03636) 5,454

    Total $19,454

    49


    The big picture example 45 tax planning1

    The Big Picture - Example 45Tax Planning

    The deductible loss from the rental property is computed as follows:

    Rent income ($1,200 X 12 months) $ 14,400

    Less expenses (see above) (19,454)

    Net loss ($ 5,054)

    But what is Dr. Payne’s overall position for the year when the tax benefit of the loss is taken into account?

    Considering just the cash intake and outlay, it is summarized below:

    Intake—

    Rent income $14,400

    Tax savings [28% (income tax bracket) X $5,054

    (loss from the property)] 1,415

    Net Intake$ 15,815

    Outlay—

    Mortgage payments ($1,000 X 12 months) 12,000

    Repairs and maintenance 2,200

    Net Outlay(14,200)

    Net cash benefit $ 1,615

    50


    Refocus on the big picture

    Refocus On The Big Picture

    Evidently, Dr. Payne’s accounting system uses MACRS because $91,298 of depreciation is the correct amount.

    The computers and peripheral equipment are 5-year property.

    The furniture and fixtures and the dental equip. are 7-year property.

    Based on the IRS tables, the following percentages are used to calculate first year depreciation expense:

    5-year property 20.00%

    7-year property 14.29%

    Dr. Payne will also be able to deduct depreciation on the house he converted from personal use to rental use and on the rental house that he purchased.

    51


    Depreciation cost recovery amortization and depletion

    • If you have any comments or suggestions concerning this PowerPoint Presentation for South-Western Federal Taxation, please contact:

    • Dr. Donald R. Trippeer, CPA

    • [email protected]

    • SUNY Oneonta


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