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Chemical Formulas, and Nomenclature ch 9. Oxidation Numbers of Monatomic Ions (On periodic table handout). 0. 1+. 2+. 3+. 4+. 2-. 3-. 1-. most 2+, but varies. Oxidation Numbers and formulas p 66.

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Chemical Formulas, and Nomenclature ch 9

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Chemical formulas and nomenclature ch 9

Chemical Formulas,

and

Nomenclature ch 9


Oxidation numbers of monatomic ions on periodic table handout

Oxidation Numbers of Monatomic Ions (On periodic table handout)

0

1+

2+

3+

4+

2-

3-

1-

most 2+,

but varies


Oxidation numbers and formulas p 66

Oxidation Numbers and formulas p 66

  • Warm up: what does oxidation # tell us about the valence electrons of that atom?

  • Transition elements have more than one oxidation #, determined by a roman numeral.

    EX: iron (II) is Fe+2

    iron (III) is Fe+3


Polyatomic ions p66

Polyatomic Ions p66

  • are made up of two or more atoms.

  • Polyatomic ions generally have the following endings: “ate” or “ite”


Oxidation numbers formulas p66

Oxidation Numbers & Formulas p66

  • The sum of the oxidation numbers in a compound must equal zero.

    EX: CaCl2 = Ca+2 + Cl- + Cl-

    2 positive charges –

    2 negative charges = 0


Writing ionic formulas p66

Writing Ionic Formulas p66

  • the cation ( positive metal ion) is always written before the anion (negative nonmetal ion).

    There is only one polyatomic cation: NH4+


Criss cross method of writing formulas p66

Criss Cross Method of Writing Formulas p66

  • Ex. Write the formula for Aluminum and Oxygen:

    Al +3 and O-2

    Al and O

    Al2O3


Criss cross method of writing formulas p661

Criss Cross Method of Writing Formulas p66

EX:Lead (II) & Phosphate

Pb+2 and PO4 -3

Pb and PO4

Pb3(PO4)2


Nomenclature p68

Nomenclature p68

  • Warm up: how do you use the criss cross method to write a formula?

  • Let’s take a look!


Naming binary ionic compounds 2 elements p68

Naming Binary Ionic Compounds (2 elements) p68

1. Name of cation (metal) is given first. The name is the same as the element.

2. Name of anion(nonmetal) is given last. The name is the same as the element, but with an “ide” ending.


Naming ionic compounds p68

Naming Ionic Compounds p68

EX: Al2O3

Aluminum oxide

cation anion


Naming ternary ionic compounds p68

Naming Ternary Ionic Compounds p68

  • Compounds containing a polyatomic ion.

    1. Cation rule from binary applies.

    2. Anion takes the name of the polyatomic ion as found on the table.

    EX: Al2(SO4)3

    Aluminum sulfate

    EX: Mg(OH)2

    Magnesium hydroxide


Transition metals in formulas p68

Transition metals in formulas p68

  • Remember: they can make 2 charges.

  • Use roman numeral in name.

  • Ex:CrCl2

    Chromium(II) chloride

    Ex: CuCO3

    Copper(II) Carbonate


Naming ionic compounds

Naming Ionic Compounds

EX: AgCl is __________________

Silver chloride

HgO is ___________________

Mercury (II) oxide

CaBr2 is ___________________

Calcium bromide

Cu2O is ___________________

Copper (I) oxide


Naming ionic compounds1

Naming Ionic Compounds

EX: SnCO3 is ____________________

Tin(II) carbonate

Co(OH)2 is ___________________

Cobalt (II) hydroxide

Zn(NO3)2 is __________________

Zinc nitrate

KClO3 is ___________________

Potassium chlorate


Naming binary molecular compounds p70

Naming Binary Molecular compounds p70

  • Warm up: why does Cobalt (II) hydroxide have a roman numeral in its name?

  • Name the following compound:

  • Ba(Na)2

    Banana!


Naming binary molecular compounds p701

Naming Binary Molecular Compounds p70

  • Composed of two nonmetals

  • Prefixes are used


Naming binary molecular compounds p702

Naming Binary Molecular Compounds p70

  • Say name of 1st element. If there is more than one, give it a prefix.

  • Say the name of second element and change ending to –ide. Always give it a prefix.

    3. The o or a at the end of a prefix is dropped when the element begins with another vowel.

    EX: monoxide or pentoxide


Naming binary molecular compoundsp70

Naming Binary Molecular Compoundsp70

EX: P4O3

*tetraphosphorus trioxide

EX:NO

*nitrogen monoxide


Naming binary molecular compounds

Naming Binary Molecular Compounds

EX: SO3 is ____________________

Sulfur trioxide

PBr5 is ____________________

Phosphorus pentabromide

ICl3 is _____________________

Iodine trichloride

H20 is _____________________

Dihydrogen monoxide


Naming binary molecular compounds1

Naming Binary Molecular Compounds

EX: NH3 is ____________________

nitrogen trihydride

N2O3 is ____________________

dinitrogen trioxide

CO is _____________________

carbon monoxide

P2O5 is _____________________

diphosphorouspentaoxide


Naming acids bases p 72

Naming Acids& Bases p 72

  • Warm up: what do you know about acids?

  • Acids are molecular compounds that have a Hydrogen atom bonded to an anion. (H-anion)

  • Anions can be elements, ending: “-ide”

  • H + element:  “hydro” -stem “-ic” acid

  • Ex) HBr=hydrobromic acid


Naming acids p72

Naming acids p72

  • Anions can be polyatomics,ending: ”-ite, -ate”

  • H + polyatomic (-ate) -stem “-ic” acid

  • Ex) H3PO4= phosphoric acid

  • H + polyatomic (-ite) -stem “-ous” acid

  • Ex) H2SO3= sulfurous acid


Naming acids p 71

Naming acids p 71

  • HBr __________________________

    hydrobromic acid

  • H2SO4 _____________________________________

    sulfuric acid

  • HNO2 _____________________________________

    nitrous acid

  • H3PO4 _____________________________________

    phosphoric acid

  • H2CO3 ____________________________________

    carbonic acid

  • HCl ____________________________

    hydrochloric acid


Formulas of acids p71

Formulas of acids p71

  • Nitric acid_______________________

    HNO3

  • Acetic acid_______________________

    HC2H3O2

  • Hydrofluoric acid_________________

    HF

  • Sulfurous acid___________________

    H2SO3

  • Hydrochloric acid_________________

    HCl


Naming bases p72

Naming Bases p72

  • Say the name of the first element, then add “hydroxide” to end.

  • Ex) LiOH- lithium hydroxide

  • Ex) Mg(OH)2- magnesium hydroxide


Polyatomic ions

Polyatomic Ions


Molecular and empirical formulas

Molecular and Empirical Formulas

  • The formulas for compounds that exist as molecules are called molecular formulas.

    EX: Hydrogen peroxide, H2O2, consists of two H atoms and two O atoms.

  • The atomic ratio of hydrogen peroxide is one to one.

  • The simplest formula that would indicate this ratio would be HO. This simple formula is an empirical formula.


Strange names for molecules

Strange Names for Molecules

  • ANOL

  • BUTANOL


Chemical formulas and nomenclature ch 9

  • MORONIC ACID

  • CRAPINON


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