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THE ONLY GOOD INDIAN…. Chapter 7. THE ONLY GOOD INDIAN…. Spring of 1866- Reached Smoky Mountain Met hunting party of Cheyenne and Arapaho Hunting in Kansas against Treaty Roman Nose and others ignored Had not signed the Treaty giving away land. THE ONLY GOOD INDIAN…. Spring of 1866-

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The only good indian

THE ONLY GOOD INDIAN…

Chapter 7


The only good indian1

THE ONLY GOOD INDIAN…

  • Spring of 1866-

    • Reached Smoky Mountain

      • Met hunting party of Cheyenne and Arapaho

      • Hunting in Kansas against Treaty

        • Roman Nose and others ignored

          • Had not signed the Treaty giving away land


The only good indian2

THE ONLY GOOD INDIAN…

  • Spring of 1866-

    • Many stayed at Smoky Hill

      • George Bent went to Black Kettle

        • Found and made Magpie his wife

  • Spring of 1866-

    • Edward Wynkoop had rejoined Cheyenne

      • Appointed Agent for tribe


The only good indian

THE ONLY GOOD INDIAN…

Hunting Party

Black Kettle Band


The only good indian3

THE ONLY GOOD INDIAN…

  • Spring of 1866-

    • Wynkoop went to Smoky Hill

      • Tried to convince warriors/hunters to report to Agency

    • Chiefs refused

      • Sioux showing success in North

      • Encouraged Cheyenne to fight


The only good indian4

THE ONLY GOOD INDIAN…

  • Spring of 1866-

    • Roman Nose and Dog Soldiers made plan

      • Make way along Smoky Hill Road

        • Raid and destroy stage stations

  • Spring of 1866-

    • Bent brothers split

      • George stayed with Black Kettle

      • Charlie with Roman Nose

      • Spoke for last time in October


The only good indian5

THE ONLY GOOD INDIAN…

  • Autumn of 1866-

    • Roman Nose went to Fort Wallace

      • Told U.S. to leave or fight

    • Winter set in early

      • Forced to set up winter camp

        • Big Timbers on the Republican


The only good indian

THE ONLY GOOD INDIAN…

Roman Nose Winter Camp

Fort Wallace


The only good indian6

THE ONLY GOOD INDIAN…

  • Spring 1867-

    • Large number of soldiers reported coming to Ft Larned

    • Black Kettle ordered his camp south of the Canadian River in southern Oklahoma

  • Move Accidentally Caused Problems-

    • Wynkoop could not find Black Kettle

      • Wanted Black Kettle to hold council at Ft Larned


The only good indian7

THE ONLY GOOD INDIAN…

  • Spring of 1867-

    • Wynkoop finds Roman Nose

      • Convinces him to hold council at Ft Larned

    • General Winfield Scott Hancock

      • In command of U.S. forces

      • 1,400 soldiers at Fort

        • Including new command of 7th

          • Hard Backsides Custer


The only good indian8

THE ONLY GOOD INDIAN…

  • Spring of 1867-

    • Hancock frustrated with participants

      • Only 14 chiefs came to council

    • Hancock threatened to go to camp to talk to chiefs

      • Indians nervous

        • Many women and children were there


The only good indian9

THE ONLY GOOD INDIAN…

  • Spring 1867-

    • Night Council was a bad omen

      • Hancock told of railroad coming

        • Whites coming from all directions

    • Cheyenne agreed to hold back warriors

      • U.S. needed to do the same

  • Hancock Agitated-

    • Roman Nose not present

      • Not a chief and not invited

    • Hancock wanted to go to camp to find him


The only good indian10

THE ONLY GOOD INDIAN…

  • Spring 1867-

    • Cheyenne begged Wynkoop to step in

      • Hancock ignored plea

        • Began march to Cheyenne camp

  • Wynkoop and Others-

    • Rode ahead to warn camp

    • Pawnee Killer (Sioux) went to meet Hancock in peace

      • Others set fire to plain to make village hard to see


The only good indian11

THE ONLY GOOD INDIAN…

  • Spring 1867-

    • Pawnee Killer met Hancock

      • Both agreed to hold council next day

      • Roman Nose MUST be in attendance

  • Spring 1867-

    • Roman Nose suspected trap

      • Wanted to break camp

    • Bull Bear met Hancock


The only good indian12

THE ONLY GOOD INDIAN…

  • Bull Bear meets with Hancock-

    • Hancock angry Roman Nose not there

      • Bull Bear said he was buffalo hunting

      • Hancock would march to Cheyenne camp and wait

  • Following meeting-

    • Bull Bear rushed to camp

      • Women and children sent North on ponies

    • Chiefs name Roman Nose war leader

      • Bull Bear 2nd to keep Roman Nose in check


The only good indian13

THE ONLY GOOD INDIAN…

  • Roman Nose Leaves Camp-

    • Takes 300 armed warriors and a truce flag to meet Hancock

    • Roman Nose told Bull Bear

      • “…Hancock is spoiling for a fight. I will kill him in front of his own men and give them something to fight about.”

  • Roman Nose Leaves Camp-

    • 300 warriors met on plains by 1,400 U.S. soldiers

    • Wynkoop talked Roman Nose into seeing Hancock


The only good indian

THE ONLY GOOD INDIAN…

Agent Edward Wynkoop

General Winfield Scott Hancock

Cheyenne War Chief Roman Nose


The only good indian14

THE ONLY GOOD INDIAN…

  • Roman Nose Meeting with Hancock-

    • Told Hancock poor horses prevented him from attending Ft Larned Council

    • Asked Hancock to not come closer to camp

      • Women and children had already fled

    • Hancock demanded Roman Nose bring them back

  • Roman Nose Meeting with Hancock-

    • Cheyenne said they would tell others to return

    • Went back to camp, packed, and fled


The only good indian15

THE ONLY GOOD INDIAN…

  • Following Meeting-

    • Hancock waited for 2 days for Roman Nose to return

    • Sent troops into abandoned camp

      • Kept what they wanted

      • Burned the rest

  • Cheyenne and Sioux Response-

    • Burned and looted stage stations

    • Attacked railroads and camps

    • Stopped all travel on Smoky Hill Road


The only good indian16

THE ONLY GOOD INDIAN…

  • U.S. Disagrees on Next Move-

    • Hancock’s expedition could not find Indians

    • Superintendent of Indian Affairs Murphy

      • Operations have been a failure

      • To continue after so few Indians futile

    • Indian Agent Sanborn agreed

  • U.S. Disagrees on Next Move-

    • General Sheridan disagreed

      • Needed to have peace or kill them

      • To leave them alone would lead to war


The only good indian17

THE ONLY GOOD INDIAN…

  • U.S. Disagrees on Next Move-

    • Agreed to try Peace Commission

      • Led by same party as Ft Laramie Treaty later that year with Red Cloud

  • Proposed Plan-

    • Plan included Cheyenne, Arapaho, Kiowa, Comanche, and Prairie Apache

    • Would share reservation south of Arkansas River

    • Government would provide

      • Cattle, crop seed, farm equipment


The only good indian18

THE ONLY GOOD INDIAN…

  • Medicine Lodge Creek Council-

    • 60 miles south of Ft Larned

      • To be held in early October

    • William Bent sent to camps as emissary

      • Black Kettle, Little Raven, Ten Bears

        • All agree to come

      • Dog Soldiers and Roman Nose

        • Refused to attend if Sherman was present


The only good indian19

THE ONLY GOOD INDIAN…

  • Bent Knew Roman Nose was Key-

    • Cheyenne would not agree to peace without him

    • Bent sent in Edmond Guerrier

      • Married to Bent’s sister

      • Roman Nose was married to Guerrier’s cousin

      • Guerrier had survived Sand Creek

    • Roman Nose finally agreed…sort of

      • Would camp on Cimarron

      • If things looked OK he would come to council


The only good indian

THE ONLY GOOD INDIAN…

Cimmaron Council Site

Fort Larned

Dog Soldier Camp


The only good indian20

THE ONLY GOOD INDIAN…

  • Medicine Lodge Creek Council-

    • Began October 16

      • All chiefs present

        • Roman Nose had runners to keep him informed

    • October 21

      • Kiowa and Comanche signed

      • Black Kettle would not

        • Wanted more Cheyenne chiefs there

      • Arapaho would not sign until Cheyenne did


The only good indian21

THE ONLY GOOD INDIAN…

  • Council at a Stand Still-

    • Black Kettle and Little Robe went to bring in Dog Soldiers

      • Took almost a week for Roman Nose and Dog Soldiers to agree to come

      • Enter Council with a show

        • Page 161


The only good indian22

THE ONLY GOOD INDIAN…

  • Council at a Stand Still-

    • Bull Bear and White Horse initially refused to sign

      • Wanted to share region

        • Needed hunting grounds

    • Bent said it was not possible

      • Finally, treaty was signed

      • Cheyenne and Arapaho agreed to country south of Arkansas River

      • Roman Nose did not sign

        • Took 400 warriors north


The only good indian23

THE ONLY GOOD INDIAN…

  • Winter of 1867-68-

    • Cheyenne and Arapaho camped near Ft Larned

      • Hunting had provided food for winter

        • Food shortage began in Spring

  • Winter of 1867-68-

    • Provisions promised were not available

      • Treaty had not been ratified

      • Wynkoop did not even have ammunition to give for hunting


The only good indian24

THE ONLY GOOD INDIAN…

  • Spring 1868-

    • Small bands begin moving

      • Head north to Smoky Mtn hunting grounds

    • Tall Bull, White Horse, Bull Bear

      • Gave into Dog Soldiers and moved north of Arkansas River

  • Spring 1868-

    • Wynkoop asked Black Kettle to stop the others from leaving

      • Council held

        • Met with new CO Gen Philip Sheridan


The only good indian25

THE ONLY GOOD INDIAN…

  • Spring 1868-

    • Gen Sheridan offered ammo and guns

      • Warned if used against U.S., Indians would be hunted and killed

    • Bands nervous

      • Lots of new soldiers in area

        • Warriors were north hunting

  • August 1868-

    • Cheyenne and Arapaho hunters

      • Camped along Arikaree River

        • Fork of Republican


The only good indian26

THE ONLY GOOD INDIAN…

  • August 1868-

    • Roman Nose and others warned

      • Gen Sheridan sent out scouting parties

        • Instructed to hunt down Indian camps

      • Warnings ignored

        • Too busy hunting for winter

  • September 1868-

    • Pawnee Killer reports scout party of 50

      • Only 20 miles from Roman Nose’s camp

    • Special scout party

      • Forsyth’s Scouts


The only good indian

THE ONLY GOOD INDIAN…

Arikaree River

Fort Larned


The only good indian27

THE ONLY GOOD INDIAN…

  • September 1868-

    • War party organized to attack scouts

      • Roman Nose did not take part

        • In midst of purification ceremony

  • September 1868-

    • Sioux, Cheyenne, Arapaho warriors go on

      • Instructed to attack as one body

        • Six young warriors ignored order

          • Wanted to scatter horse herd


The only good indian28

THE ONLY GOOD INDIAN…

  • September 1868-

    • Only captured a few ponies

      • Allowed soldiers to escape

        • Dug in on island in Arikaree

  • September 1868-

    • Warriors unable to make charge on island

      • Spent day circling island

        • Killing soldier ponies

          • Soldiers used the dead horses for protection


The only good indian29

THE ONLY GOOD INDIAN…

  • September 1868-

    • Roman Nose joined warriors that afternoon

      • Knew he would die that day

        • Prepared himself for battle and death

  • September 1868-

    • Led charge on Scouts

      • Indian front line shot down

    • Roman Nose caught in crossfire

      • Shot through hip and severs spine


The only good indian30

THE ONLY GOOD INDIAN…

  • September 1868-

    • Roman Nose laid in brush until dark

      • Crawled to party searching for him

    • Taken to camp

      • Women there tending to wounded

      • Roman Nose died that night

  • September 1868-

    • Roman Nose’s death deflated warriors

      • Held scouts under siege for 8 days

      • Saved by relief column of soldiers


The only good indian31

THE ONLY GOOD INDIAN…

  • September 1868-

    • Among whites became known as

      • Battle of Beecher’s Island

    • Among Cheyenne

      • Fight When Roman Nose Was Killed

  • Fall 1868-

    • Remaining Cheyenne returned south

      • Joined Black Kettle below Arkansas River


The only good indian32

THE ONLY GOOD INDIAN…

  • Fall/Winter 1868-

    • Gen Sheridan makes plans

      • Will lead a winter campaign

        • Hunt and kill all “savage” Indians

        • Savage was any that resisted when fired upon

  • Winter 1868-

    • Black Kettle set up camp

      • Washita River

    • Scolded returning people, but welcomed them back


The only good indian33

THE ONLY GOOD INDIAN…

  • Winter 1868-

    • Reports of soldiers reached Black Kettle

      • Went to new agency at Ft Cobb

    • Asked Gen William Hazen for permission to move camp to Ft Cobb

      • Wanted protection

      • Request denied

    • Gen Hazen instructed Black Kettle back to camp

      • Assured Black Kettle all would be OK

        • Gen Hazen knew of Sheridan’s plan


The only good indian

THE ONLY GOOD INDIAN…

Black Kettle’s Camp on the Washita River

Fort Cobb


The only good indian34

THE ONLY GOOD INDIAN…

  • Winter 1868-

    • Black Kettle returned to village dejected

      • Called for council

        • Would not let Cheyenne experience another Sand Creek

      • Planned to take delegation to meet soldiers


The only good indian35

THE ONLY GOOD INDIAN…

  • Winter 1868-

    • Blizzard forces Black Kettle to wait until next day to leave

    • Awoke next morning

      • Screams of “Soldiers!” through camp

  • Washita Massacre-

    • Black Kettle ran back into lodge and grabbed rifle

    • Shot into air to awaken camp and give orders

    • He WOULD NOT let Sand Creek happen again


The only good indian36

THE ONLY GOOD INDIAN…

  • Washita Massacre-

    • Soldiers surprised camp

      • Led by Custer

        • Snow muffled horse hooves

        • Fog concealed soldiers

  • Washita Massacre-

    • Black Kettle still wanted to talk to soldiers

      • Custer’s men came from all four directions

      • Black Kettle knew he would not be able to talk peace


The only good indian37

THE ONLY GOOD INDIAN…

  • Washita Massacre-

    • Grabbed wife and mounted pony

      • Gave sign of peace to charging soldiers

      • Black Kettle shot in stomach and back

        • Died in the snow

      • Wife also shot and killed


The only good indian38

THE ONLY GOOD INDIAN…

  • Washita Massacre-

    • Custer was under commands from Sheridan

      • Find village

      • Destroy village and ponies

      • Kill or hang all warriors

      • Take women and children as prisoners


The only good indian39

THE ONLY GOOD INDIAN…

  • Washita Massacre-

    • Entire raid took minutes

      • Custer’s men then corralled ponies

        • Killed hundreds

    • To separate old men from warriors was too tedious for Custer and his men

      • Began killing men indiscriminately

  • Washita Massacre-

    • 103 Cheyenne killed

      • Only 11 were warriors

      • 53 women and children taken prisoner


The only good indian40

THE ONLY GOOD INDIAN…

  • Washita Massacre-

    • News of fight spread downriver

      • Arapaho helped Cheyenne rearguard

      • Surrounded pursuit platoon led by Mjr Joel Elliott

        • Warriors killed all 19 soldiers

  • Washita Massacre-

    • By noon, Kiowa and Comanche had joined

      • Custer retreated to base at Camp Supply

        • On Canadian River

        • Forced his men and prisoners to march through weather


The only good indian41

THE ONLY GOOD INDIAN…

  • Washita Massacre-

    • Gen Sheridan welcomed Custer to camp

      • Custer entered waving scalps of dead “savages”

        • Black Kettle’s among the trophies

      • Custer publicly commended

  • Washita Massacre-

    • Gen Sheridan boasts on pg 169


The only good indian42

THE ONLY GOOD INDIAN…

  • Washita Massacre-

    • Wynkoop had resigned in protest

      • Living in Philadelphia

        • Publicly criticized Sherman’s policy

        • Other joined Wynkoop

  • Washita Massacre-

    • Gen Sherman supported Sheridan

      • Gave order to continue killing hostiles and ponies

    • Other tribes ordered to surrender or perish

      • Report to Custer at Ft Cobb


The only good indian43

THE ONLY GOOD INDIAN…

  • Washita Massacre-

    • Little Robe became Cheyenne leader

      • Survivors walked to Ft Cobb

        • In December

        • Starving to point of eating their dogs

      • Surrendered unconditionally

  • Washita Massacre-

    • Others followed

      • Yellow Bear and Arapaho

      • Tosawi and Comanche


The only good indian44

THE ONLY GOOD INDIAN…

  • Split Again-

    • Spring 1869 tribes assigned to agencies

      • Comanche and Kiowa

        • Sent to Ft Sill

      • Cheyenne and Arapaho

        • Send to Camp Supply

  • Split Again-

    • Little Robe and Tall Bull fight

      • Blame each other for events

      • Tall Bull and Dog Soldiers go north

        • Join Sioux and Northern Cheyenne


The only good indian45

THE ONLY GOOD INDIAN…

  • Split Again-

    • Tall Bull pursued by U.S.

      • Managed to evade U.S. until summer

    • Camp found by Pawnee mercenaries

      • All but Tall Bull’s wife and child killed

  • Split Again-

    • At the end of hostilities

      • Black Kettle, Roman Nose, Tall Bull dead

    • Cheyenne lost home in Colorado and exiled to Oklahoma


The only good indian

THE ONLY GOOD INDIAN…


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