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Anatomy & Physiology. Basic structure: cells, tissues, organs Body planes, directions, & cavities Integumentary system. Basic Structure of the Human Body Cells Tissues Organs Organ System ORGANISM.

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anatomy physiology
Anatomy & Physiology

Basic structure: cells, tissues, organs

Body planes, directions, & cavities

Integumentary system

slide2

Basic Structure of the Human Body

Cells

Tissues

Organs

Organ System

ORGANISM

slide3

Animal structure has ahierarchy

A. CELLULAR LEVEL:Muscle cell

B. TISSUE LEVEL:Muscle tissue

C. ORGAN LEVEL:Heart

D. ORGAN SYSTEM LEVEL:Circulatory system

E. ORGANISM LEVEL:Many organ systemsfunctioning together

the cell
The Cell
  • Cell membrane
  • Cytoplasm
  • Organelles
    • Nucleus
      • Nucleolus
      • Chromatin
    • Ribosomes (free; bound)
    • Centrosome
      • Centrioles
    • Mitochondria
    • Golgi apparatus
    • Endoplasmic reticulum
    • Lysosomes
    • Vesicles
      • Pinocytosis
      • Phagocytosis
          • See next slide
cell reproduction
Cell Reproduction
  • 2 types of cells in our body:
      • Regular body cells (somatic cells) -------- 46 chromosomes
      • Sex cell (gametes) ---------------------------- 23 chromosomes
  • Mitosis = process of cell reproduction for body cells
      • Get identical cells; thus same as cloning & asexual reproduction
  • Meiosis = process of cell reproduction for sex cells
      • Do not get identical cells; thus get variation
mitosis
Key: first chromosomes replicate & become chromatids

DNA

Chromatin

Chromosomes

Then : (PMAT)

Prophase

Metaphase

Anaphase

Telophase

Mitosis
tissues
Tissues
  • Tissue =when cells work together for a common purpose
  • 4 types
        • Epithelial --- lines body surfaces
        • Connective ---connects & supports things
        • Muscle ---- moves & protects
        • Nerve ------ control & communicate
systems of the body
Systems of the Body
  • 11 organ systems
      • Integumentary
      • Skeletal
      • Muscular
      • Nervous
      • Circulatory
      • Lymphatic
      • Respiratory
      • Digestive
      • Urinary
      • Endocrine
      • Reproductive
slide12

Hair

Cartilage

  • The integumentary system :
    • Covers and protects the body
    • Regulates body temp
    • Makes vitamin D

Skin

  • The skeletal system:
    • Supports and protects the body
    • Moves the body
    • Makes blood cells

Nails

Bones

slide13
The muscular system:
    • Produces movement
    • Enables body posture
    • Produces body

heat

Skeletalmuscles

slide14
The endocrine and nervous systems:

control, regulate, and coordinate body functions

Pineal gland

Brain

Pituitary gland

Senseorgan

Thyroid gland

Thymus gland

Spinalcord

Adrenal gland

Pancreas

Nerves

Testis (male)

Ovary(female)

ENDOCRINESYSTEM

NERVOUSSYSTEM

slide15

The lymphatic (immune) system

    • Protects the body
    • Carries tissue fluid & wastes to blood
  • The circulatory system:
    • transports the food and oxygen

Bonemarrow

Thymus

Heart

Spleen

Lymphnodes

Lymphvessels

Bloodvessels

CIRCULATORYSYSTEM

LYMPHATIC ANDIMMUNE SYSTEMS

slide16

The respiratory system

    • Exchanges oxygen for carbon dioxide
  • The digestive system:
    • Digests & absorbs food
    • Eliminates wastes

Larynx

Mouth

Trachea

Esophagus

Bronchus

Liver

Stomach

Lung

Smallintestine

Largeintestine

Anus

DIGESTIVE SYSTEM

RESPIRATORYSYSTEM

slide17
The urinary system:
    • Disposes of certain wastes
    • Keeps body in fluid & chemical balance

Kidney

Ureter

Urinarybladder

Urethra

slide18
The reproductive system:
    • perpetuates the species

MALE

Penis

FEMALE

Seminalvesicles

Ovary

Oviduct

Prostate gland

Uterus

Vasdeferens

Vagina

Testis

Urethra

G. REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEMS

Figure 20.9G

body planes directions cavities
Body planes, directions, & cavities

Body Planes: sagittal, coronal (frontal), & transverse

slide20

Body Directionsproximal/distal lateral /medialcephalic/ caudalsuperior/ inferiorsuperficial/ deepanterior/ posteriorventral/ dorsal

areas of the abdomen
Areas of the abdomen

Figure 1-8

  • Quadrants
  • Regions
integumentary system
Anatomy

3 layers

Epidermis

Dermis

Subcutaneous layer

Hypodermis

Physiology

Protection

Excretion of waste

Synthesis of Vitamin D

Sensation

Body temperature regulation

Integumentary System
glands
Glands
  • Sebaceous glands (oil)
  • Sudoriferous glands
    • Eccrine
    • Apocrine

Figure 7-4

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