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Anatomy & Physiology. Basic structure: cells, tissues, organs Body planes, directions, & cavities Integumentary system. Basic Structure of the Human Body Cells Tissues Organs Organ System ORGANISM.

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Anatomy physiology
Anatomy & Physiology

Basic structure: cells, tissues, organs

Body planes, directions, & cavities

Integumentary system


Basic Structure of the Human Body

Cells

Tissues

Organs

Organ System

ORGANISM


Animal structure has ahierarchy

A. CELLULAR LEVEL:Muscle cell

B. TISSUE LEVEL:Muscle tissue

C. ORGAN LEVEL:Heart

D. ORGAN SYSTEM LEVEL:Circulatory system

E. ORGANISM LEVEL:Many organ systemsfunctioning together


The cell
The Cell

  • Cell membrane

  • Cytoplasm

  • Organelles

    • Nucleus

      • Nucleolus

      • Chromatin

    • Ribosomes (free; bound)

    • Centrosome

      • Centrioles

    • Mitochondria

    • Golgi apparatus

    • Endoplasmic reticulum

    • Lysosomes

    • Vesicles

      • Pinocytosis

      • Phagocytosis

        • See next slide


Cell reproduction
Cell Reproduction

  • 2 types of cells in our body:

    • Regular body cells (somatic cells) -------- 46 chromosomes

    • Sex cell (gametes) ---------------------------- 23 chromosomes

  • Mitosis = process of cell reproduction for body cells

    • Get identical cells; thus same as cloning & asexual reproduction

  • Meiosis = process of cell reproduction for sex cells

    • Do not get identical cells; thus get variation


  • Mitosis

    Key: first chromosomes replicate & become chromatids

    DNA

    Chromatin

    Chromosomes

    Then : (PMAT)

    Prophase

    Metaphase

    Anaphase

    Telophase

    Mitosis



    Tissues
    Tissues

    • Tissue =when cells work together for a common purpose

    • 4 types

      • Epithelial --- lines body surfaces

      • Connective ---connects & supports things

      • Muscle ---- moves & protects

      • Nerve ------ control & communicate


    Systems of the body
    Systems of the Body

    • 11 organ systems

      • Integumentary

      • Skeletal

      • Muscular

      • Nervous

      • Circulatory

      • Lymphatic

      • Respiratory

      • Digestive

      • Urinary

      • Endocrine

      • Reproductive


    Hair

    Cartilage

    • The integumentary system :

      • Covers and protects the body

      • Regulates body temp

      • Makes vitamin D

    Skin

    • The skeletal system:

      • Supports and protects the body

      • Moves the body

      • Makes blood cells

    Nails

    Bones


    Skeletalmuscles


    The endocrine and nervous systems:

    control, regulate, and coordinate body functions

    Pineal gland

    Brain

    Pituitary gland

    Senseorgan

    Thyroid gland

    Thymus gland

    Spinalcord

    Adrenal gland

    Pancreas

    Nerves

    Testis (male)

    Ovary(female)

    ENDOCRINESYSTEM

    NERVOUSSYSTEM


    • The lymphatic (immune) system

      • Protects the body

      • Carries tissue fluid & wastes to blood

    • The circulatory system:

      • transports the food and oxygen

    Bonemarrow

    Thymus

    Heart

    Spleen

    Lymphnodes

    Lymphvessels

    Bloodvessels

    CIRCULATORYSYSTEM

    LYMPHATIC ANDIMMUNE SYSTEMS


    • The digestive system:

      • Digests & absorbs food

      • Eliminates wastes

    Larynx

    Mouth

    Trachea

    Esophagus

    Bronchus

    Liver

    Stomach

    Lung

    Smallintestine

    Largeintestine

    Anus

    DIGESTIVE SYSTEM

    RESPIRATORYSYSTEM


    Kidney

    Ureter

    Urinarybladder

    Urethra


    MALE

    Penis

    FEMALE

    Seminalvesicles

    Ovary

    Oviduct

    Prostate gland

    Uterus

    Vasdeferens

    Vagina

    Testis

    Urethra

    G. REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEMS

    Figure 20.9G


    Body planes directions cavities
    Body planes, directions, & cavities

    Body Planes: sagittal, coronal (frontal), & transverse


    Body Directionsproximal/distal lateral /medialcephalic/ caudalsuperior/ inferiorsuperficial/ deepanterior/ posteriorventral/ dorsal



    Areas of the abdomen
    Areas of the abdomen

    Figure 1-8

    • Quadrants

    • Regions


    Integumentary system

    Anatomy

    3 layers

    Epidermis

    Dermis

    Subcutaneous layer

    Hypodermis

    Physiology

    Protection

    Excretion of waste

    Synthesis of Vitamin D

    Sensation

    Body temperature regulation

    Integumentary System


    Cutaneous membrane
    Cutaneous membrane

    Figure 7-1


    Glands
    Glands

    • Sebaceous glands (oil)

    • Sudoriferous glands

      • Eccrine

      • Apocrine

    Figure 7-4


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