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US History: Slavery, Freedom, and The Crisis of Union. Questions to consider. 1. How did slavery shape the economic and social relations in the Old South? 2. What were the conditions in which slaves lived and worked?

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Us history slavery freedom and the crisis of union

US History: Slavery, Freedom, and The Crisis of Union


Questions to consider
Questions to consider

  • 1. How did slavery shape the economic and social relations in the Old South?

  • 2. What were the conditions in which slaves lived and worked?

  • 3. Why did many white southerners support slavery even while they did not own slaves themselves?

  • 4. Why do you think slavery was called the “peculiar institution?”


Objective
Objective

  • You will all…

  • Analyze the economic and social role of Slavery in the Old South and understand the conditions of slave life, 1840-1860.


How did slavery shape social and economic relations in the old south
How did slavery shape social and economic relations in the Old South?

  • King Cotton: cotton replaced sugar as the world’s major crop produced by slave labor.

  • 3/4ths of the worlds cotton supply came from the southern U.S.

  • Cotton supplied the textile mills in the North and Great Britain.


How did slavery shape social and economic relations in the old south1
How did slavery shape social and economic relations in the Old South?

  • The Southern Economy: economic growth was different from the North.

  • There were few large cities in the South.

  • The cities were mainly centers for gathering and shipping cotton.


Ch 11 image 5
Ch. 11, Image 5 Old South?


How did slavery shape social and economic relations in the old south2
How did slavery shape social and economic relations in the Old South?

  • The “Plain Folk” of the Old South: three out of four white southerners did not own slaves.

  • Most white southerners lived on self-sufficient farms in isolated areas and were poorly educated.

  • Most supported slavery.

  • The majority supported the planter elite and slavery because of shared bonds of regional loyalty, racism, and kinship ties -- ETHNOCENTRISM


Ch 11 image 6
Ch. 11, Image 6 Old South?


How did slavery shape social and economic relations in the old south3
How did slavery shape social and economic relations in the Old South?

  • The Planter Class: Ownership of slaves provided a route to wealth, status, and influence.

    • It was customary and property was passed down through generations

  • Slavery was a profit-making economic system.

  • Men watched the world market for cotton, invested in infrastructure, and managed their plantations.

  • Young boys went to military schools to learn how to “manage” people through discipline and studies


How did slavery shape social and economic relations in the old south4
How did slavery shape social and economic relations in the Old South?

  • Paternalism: from the word patria as in father, this was the idea that slaves were well taken care of under slavery.

  • Slave owners were committed to a hierarchical, agrarian society.

  • Paternalism was a kind of proslavery argument which enabled slave owners to think of themselves as kind, responsible masters.


Ch 11 image 10
Ch. 11, Image 10 Old South?


What were the conditions in which slaves lived and worked
What were the conditions in which slaves lived and worked? Old South?

  • Slaves were considered chattel, or property and had few legal rights.

  • They could not testify against a white person, carry weapons, or leave the plantations.

  • Labor was most of the slaves daily existence

  • Foundation – Barbados slave codes


What were the conditions in which slaves lived and worked1
What were the conditions in which slaves lived and worked? Old South?

  • Gang labor and task labor: Most slaves worked in the fields.

  • An estimated 75% of women and 90% of men worked as field hands.

  • On large plantations they worked in gangs under the direction of an overseer, a man who was generally considered to be cruel by the slaves.

  • House labor and field labor as well – social hierarchy among the slave population – Mulattos vs. African


Ch 11 image 15
Ch. 11, Image 15 Old South?


What were the conditions in which slaves lived and worked2
What were the conditions in which slaves lived and worked? Old South?

  • Maintaining Order: The system of maintaining order rested on force.

  • There were many tools a master had to keep order, including whipping, exploiting divisions among slaves, incentives, denial of education, and the threat of sale.


Ch 11 image 18
Ch. 11, Image 18 Old South?


Ch 11 image 21
Ch. 11, Image 21 Old South?


Comprehension check

Take no more than the next 15 minutes to answer the following four multiple choice questions and two short answer using the key terms from lecture.

Comprehension Check


The peculiar institution
The following four multiple choice questions and two short answer using the key terms from lecture. Peculiar Institution

1. In the Old South, the percentage of white families that owned slaves was approximately

  • 10 percent.

  • 25 percent.

  • 40 percent.

  • 60 percent.


The peculiar institution1
The following four multiple choice questions and two short answer using the key terms from lecture. Peculiar Institution

2. Which of the following was not a central theme of planter ideology?

  • The competitive marketplace is where we make our fortunes—but it is not where we derive our values.

  • There is no place for fixed social hierarchies in a democratic republic.

  • We are the aristocrats of our region; women, children, slaves, and poorer whites depend upon us for guidance and protection.

  • Wealth is meant to be consumed, not merely reinvested.


The peculiar institution2
The following four multiple choice questions and two short answer using the key terms from lecture. Peculiar Institution

3. Cotton was “King” during the first half of the nineteenth century. Three-fourths of the world’s supply came from the United States, and textile manufacturers in New England, Great Britain, France, and Russia depended on the American cotton supply. Define “textile”:

  • Tiles, usually made of ceramic and cotton, used in building houses, manufacturing plants, and government buildings.

  • Woven cloth.

  • A small book or text, usually on a topic of general interest to the reading public.

  • Steam engine-powered factory or manufactures.


The peculiar institution3
The following four multiple choice questions and two short answer using the key terms from lecture. Peculiar Institution

4. Slaves made up a significant portion of the Old South’s

  • field laborers.

  • house servants.

  • skilled artisans.

  • all of the above.


Short answer
Short Answer following four multiple choice questions and two short answer using the key terms from lecture.

  • Key Terms: King Cotton, the Southern economy, Plain folk of the Old South, Planter class, Paternalism, Chattel, Gang labor, Overseer, Maintaining order…

  • 1. How did slavery shape the economic and social relations in the Old South?

  • 2. What were the conditions in which slaves lived and worked?


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