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Chapter 2b CNS Gross Anatomy. Chris Rorden University of South Carolina Norman J. Arnold School of Public Health Department of Communication Sciences and Disorders University of South Carolina. Brain Sub-Divisions. Telencephalon – Cortex, Limbic system, basal ganglia, olfactory bulb

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chapter 2b cns gross anatomy
Chapter 2b CNS Gross Anatomy
  • Chris Rorden

University of South Carolina

Norman J. Arnold School of Public Health

Department of Communication Sciences and Disorders

University of South Carolina

brain sub divisions
Brain Sub-Divisions

Telencephalon – Cortex, Limbic system, basal ganglia, olfactory bulb

Diencephalon

Thalamus, Hypothalamus

Mesencephalon

Tegmentum, Red Nucleus, Colliculi

Rhombencephalon

Pons, Cerebellum, Medulla

Spinal Cord

diencephalon
Diencephalon
  • Diencephalon = thalamus, hypothalamus, epithalamus, prethalamus or subthalamus and pretectum
  • Thalamus
    • Oval Mass of Neurons in the Center of the Brain
    • Relays Sensorimotor Information to the Cortex
thalamus
Thalamus
  • Poor contrast on MRI scans – hard to see.
thalamic injury
Thalamic Injury
  • T2-weighted MRI
  • Bilateral injury to parts of thalamus
diencephalon6
Diencephalon
  • Hypothalamus
    • Body Heat, Water intake, Hormone Production, Emotional Expression, Food Consumption and Reproduction
midbrain hindbrain
Midbrain, Hindbrain
  • Pons
  • Medulla Oblongata
  • Functions: Automatic Control Systems
ventral brainstem
Ventral Brainstem
  • Mamillary Bodies
  • Medial Sulcus
  • Ventral Median Fissure
  • Pyramidal Tract
  • Pyramidal Decussation
    • Where signals cross
  • Ventral lateral sulcus
midbrain dorsal structures
Midbrain Dorsal Structures
  • Superior and Inferior Colliculus
    • The ‘little hills’.
    • Superior colliculi – help initiate eye movements, integrate visual, auditory and tactile information
    • Inferior colliculi- audition
  • Aka Corpora Quadrigemina (four seeds)

Dorsal View of Brainstem

Pineal Body

Brachium

Superior

Colliculus

Inferior

Colliculus

Colliculus

Superior

Inferior

Trochlear

Nerve

colliculi
Colliculi
  • Superior colliculi: eye movement control. Also maps touch and hearing onto vision
  • Inferior colliculi: pathway for auditory processing

Sagittal View

internal structures of the midbrain
Internal Structures of the Midbrain
  • Tegmentum
  • Cerebral Aqueduct
  • Red Nucleus
  • Cranial nerve nuclei
  • Reticular Formation
  • Central Gray Area

Transverse Section of Rostral Midbrain

Tectum

Tegmentum

Basis

Pedunculi

internal structures of the pons
Internal structures of the pons
  • Tegmentum
    • Ascending and Descending Fibers
    • Medial Lemniscus
  • Basilar Pons
    • Cortical Descending Tracts
    • Pontine Nuclei
    • Pontocerebellar Fibers

Transverse Section of Mid Pons

Teg-

mentum

Basilar

medulla oblongata
Medulla Oblongata
  • Connects to Pontine Protrusion
  • Caudal Portion Contains Pyramidal Decussation
  • Where motor tracts cross over for control of contralateral side of the body

Tegmentum

Pyramid

landmarks of medulla
Landmarks of Medulla
  • Ventral
    • Ventrolateral Sulcus
    • Pyramidal Tract
    • Lateral Corticospinal Motor Tract
  • Dorsal
    • Dorsal Median Sulcus
    • Dorsolateral Sulcus
    • Olivary Nucleus
internal medulla
Internal Medulla
  • Dorsal Tegmentum
  • Ventral Pyramidal Tract
  • Reticular Formation
    • Cardiac Center
    • Vasomotor Center
    • Respiratory Center
cerebellum
Cerebellum
  • Modifies Cortical Activity
  • Distinctive Appearance
    • Gyri called Folia
    • Two Hemispheres
  • Three Lobes
    • Anterior
    • Posterior
    • Flocculonodular
cerebellum17
Cerebellum

Posterior lobe

  • Rostral view
    • (bird’s eye)

Anterior lobe

cerebellum18
Cerebellum
  • Caudal view (from the feet)

Posterior lobe

Anterior lobe

Flocculus

cerebellum19
Cerebellum
  • Anterior view

Flocculus

Nodulus

cerebellum20
Cerebellum
  • Midsagittal slice

Nodulus

Flocculus

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