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Chapter 2b CNS Gross Anatomy. Chris Rorden University of South Carolina Norman J. Arnold School of Public Health Department of Communication Sciences and Disorders University of South Carolina. Brain Sub-Divisions. Telencephalon – Cortex, Limbic system, basal ganglia, olfactory bulb

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Chapter 2b CNS Gross Anatomy

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Chapter 2b cns gross anatomy l.jpg

Chapter 2b CNS Gross Anatomy

  • Chris Rorden

    University of South Carolina

    Norman J. Arnold School of Public Health

    Department of Communication Sciences and Disorders

    University of South Carolina


Brain sub divisions l.jpg

Brain Sub-Divisions

Telencephalon – Cortex, Limbic system, basal ganglia, olfactory bulb

Diencephalon

Thalamus, Hypothalamus

Mesencephalon

Tegmentum, Red Nucleus, Colliculi

Rhombencephalon

Pons, Cerebellum, Medulla

Spinal Cord


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Diencephalon

  • Diencephalon = thalamus, hypothalamus, epithalamus, prethalamus or subthalamus and pretectum

  • Thalamus

    • Oval Mass of Neurons in the Center of the Brain

    • Relays Sensorimotor Information to the Cortex


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Thalamus

  • Poor contrast on MRI scans – hard to see.


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Thalamic Injury

  • T2-weighted MRI

  • Bilateral injury to parts of thalamus


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Diencephalon

  • Hypothalamus

    • Body Heat, Water intake, Hormone Production, Emotional Expression, Food Consumption and Reproduction


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Midbrain, Hindbrain

  • Pons

  • Medulla Oblongata

  • Functions: Automatic Control Systems


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Ventral Brainstem

  • Mamillary Bodies

  • Medial Sulcus

  • Ventral Median Fissure

  • Pyramidal Tract

  • Pyramidal Decussation

    • Where signals cross

  • Ventral lateral sulcus


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Midbrain Dorsal Structures

  • Superior and Inferior Colliculus

    • The ‘little hills’.

    • Superior colliculi – help initiate eye movements, integrate visual, auditory and tactile information

    • Inferior colliculi- audition

  • Aka Corpora Quadrigemina (four seeds)

Dorsal View of Brainstem

Pineal Body

Brachium

Superior

Colliculus

Inferior

Colliculus

Colliculus

Superior

Inferior

Trochlear

Nerve


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Colliculi

  • Superior colliculi: eye movement control. Also maps touch and hearing onto vision

  • Inferior colliculi: pathway for auditory processing

Sagittal View


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Internal Structures of the Midbrain

  • Tegmentum

  • Cerebral Aqueduct

  • Red Nucleus

  • Cranial nerve nuclei

  • Reticular Formation

  • Central Gray Area

Transverse Section of Rostral Midbrain

Tectum

Tegmentum

Basis

Pedunculi


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Internal structures of the pons

  • Tegmentum

    • Ascending and Descending Fibers

    • Medial Lemniscus

  • Basilar Pons

    • Cortical Descending Tracts

    • Pontine Nuclei

    • Pontocerebellar Fibers

Transverse Section of Mid Pons

Teg-

mentum

Basilar


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Medulla Oblongata

  • Connects to Pontine Protrusion

  • Caudal Portion Contains Pyramidal Decussation

  • Where motor tracts cross over for control of contralateral side of the body

Tegmentum

Pyramid


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Landmarks of Medulla

  • Ventral

    • Ventrolateral Sulcus

    • Pyramidal Tract

    • Lateral Corticospinal Motor Tract

  • Dorsal

    • Dorsal Median Sulcus

    • Dorsolateral Sulcus

    • Olivary Nucleus


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Internal Medulla

  • Dorsal Tegmentum

  • Ventral Pyramidal Tract

  • Reticular Formation

    • Cardiac Center

    • Vasomotor Center

    • Respiratory Center


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Cerebellum

  • Modifies Cortical Activity

  • Distinctive Appearance

    • Gyri called Folia

    • Two Hemispheres

  • Three Lobes

    • Anterior

    • Posterior

    • Flocculonodular


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Cerebellum

Posterior lobe

  • Rostral view

    • (bird’s eye)

Anterior lobe


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Cerebellum

  • Caudal view (from the feet)

Posterior lobe

Anterior lobe

Flocculus


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Cerebellum

  • Anterior view

Flocculus

Nodulus


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Cerebellum

  • Midsagittal slice

Nodulus

Flocculus


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