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Learning Journals and Reflective Thinking: An Enquiry-Based Approach Aberdeen University 7 th July 2006. Dr George Allan BSc MA(Ed) PhD FBCS FNZCS CEng CITP MIMIS MILT MIEEE University of Portsmouth School of Computing. Buckingham Building Lion Terrace, Portsmouth PO1 3HE

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Learning Journals and Reflective Thinking: An Enquiry-Based Approach Aberdeen University

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Learning journals and reflective thinking an enquiry based approach aberdeen university

Learning Journals

and

Reflective Thinking:

An Enquiry-Based Approach

Aberdeen University

7th July 2006


Learning journals and reflective thinking an enquiry based approach aberdeen university

Dr George Allan

BSc MA(Ed) PhD FBCS FNZCS CEng CITP MIMIS MILT MIEEE

University of Portsmouth

School of Computing

Buckingham Building Lion Terrace,

Portsmouth PO1 3HE

+44(0)2392 846415

[email protected]

http://www.tech.port.ac.uk/staffweb/allang/


Workshop overview

Workshop Overview

  • learning journals – their purpose

  • thinking ―› reflection

  • cognitive development models

  • enquiry-based paradigm

  • reflection ―› critical reflection ―› reflexion

  • strategies for engaging students


Learning journal

Learning Journal

  • A learning journal - collection of reflective writings

  • Reflective writing – manifestation of reflective thinking

  • What is reflective thinking?


Learning journal1

Learning Journal

Find and record information

+

Thinking

+

Writing

=

Better thinking


Learning journals and reflective thinking an enquiry based approach aberdeen university

Thinking


Thinking 1

Thinking 1

  • Recall

    • descriptive

  • What purpose does this serve?

  • How deeply does this engage the brain?


  • Thinking 2

    Thinking 2

    • Descriptive Recall +

      some cognitive skills = Reflection

      Analysis

      Explanation

      Interpretation

    • Description + these cognitive skills = Reflection


    Reflection

    Reflection

    • – a collection of intellectual activities to reach deeper understanding (Boud, Keogh and Walker, 1985)

    • - the process of discovering the limits of one’s own expertise (Schön, 1983)

    • - mentally questioning what we understand (Broad, 1924)


    Example

    Example

    • What is best practice in management ?

    • The ‘core’ of best practice in management is making good decisions.

    • Good decisions rely on good use of resources.

    • Making good use of resources requires good communications.

    • Good communications ……..


    Reflection1

    Reflection

    • The Kolb cycle

      • experience

      • reflect

      • generalize

      • test

  • The Cowan diagram

    • Reflection for action

    • Reflection in action

    • Reflection on action

  • Modified Cowan diagram


  • Learning journals and reflective thinking an enquiry based approach aberdeen university

    The Student Experience

    Wisdom: Improved judgement

    Knowledge: Improved reasoning

    Learning: Improved ability

    Training: Task completion


    Perry s model of student cognitive development

    Perry’s Model of Student Cognitive Development

    • Dualistic thinking

    • Multiplistic thinking

    • Relativistic thinking

    • Commitment


    Dualistic thinking

    Dualistic thinking

    • All knowledge is known by the teacher

    • Every piece of knowledge is either R or W

    • Your answer is either RIGHT or WRONG

    • Ask the teacher.


    Multiplistic thinking

    Multiplistic thinking

    • Diversity of people’s opinions seen as their confusion – not yet arrived at the correct answer.

    • Accept diversity as legitimate – teacher has not found the correct answer yet.

    • Uncertainty is legitimate – my opinion is equal to teachers.


    Relativistic thinking

    Relativistic thinking

    • Knowledge is seen as contextual

    • The value of knowledge

    • Different people’s knowledge – relative to person’s reliability/reputation/worth


    Learning journals and reflective thinking an enquiry based approach aberdeen university

    Student

    Work

    Lecture Session Structure

    10 mins

    Agree

    next

    topic

    to

    study

    10/20 mins

    Small

    group

    discussions on individual work

    • Whole-class participation

    • Holistic learning

    • Short bursts of information

    • Short bursts of activity

    • Student engagement

    Student

    Work

    An Enquiry-Based Paradigm


    The reflective judgement model

    The Reflective Judgement Model

    King and Kitchener (1990) based on Dewey (1933) and Perry (1970)

    • Stage 1 – Single Category Belief System

      • Knowledge is absolute and concrete

  • Stage 2 – Truth not known to everyone

    • Some people are right and some are wrong

  • Stage 3 – Truth is incomplete (yet)

    • All problems have solutions – some have not yet been found

  • Stage 4 – Uncertainty in knowing is acknowledged

    • Attributed to limitations of the knower

  • Stage 5 – Knowledge is placed in context

    • Interpretation of evidence

  • Stage 6 – Knowing involves evaluation

    • Some people’s views are evaluated as better than others

  • Stage 7 – Knowledge is constructed via critical enquiry

    • Synthesis of existing evidence; judgement on worth of evidence


  • Thinking 21

    Thinking 2

    • Descriptive Recall +

      some cognitive skills = Reflection

      Analysis

      Explanation

      Interpretation

    • Description + these cognitive skills = Reflection


    Thinking 3

    Thinking 3

    • Reflection +

    • Reflection + questioning the basis of our analysis

      = Critical Reflection


    Critical reflection

    Critical Reflection

    A deeper conceptual thinking process

    Analysis

    Explanation

    Interpretation

    Inference

    • Conceptual level


    Critical thinking

    Critical Thinking

    • Critical Thinking: What It Is and Why It Counts (Facione, 1998)

    • Cognitive skills of:

      • Interpretation

      • Analysis

      • Evaluation

      • Inference

      • Explanation

      • Self-regulation


    Thinking 4

    Thinking 4

    • Think about the thinking

    • Reflexive – indication that action turns back upon the subject

    • Reflect on our critical reflection

      = Reflexion


    Thinking 41

    Thinking 4

    Critical Reflection +

    challenge the validity of presuppositions in own prior learning (Mezirow, 1990)

    • Critical Reflection + question the assumptions in own mind

      = Critical Reflexion


    Learning journal2

    Learning Journal

    Find and record information

    +

    Thinking

    +

    Writing

    =

    Critical reflexion


    Learning journal3

    Learning Journal

    • Learning journal - collection of reflective writings

    • Reflective writing – manifestation of reflective thinking

    • Reflexive thinking


    The relationship between thinking and writing

    The Relationship between Thinking and Writing


    References

    References

    • Dewey, J., (1910;1933), How We Think, London, Heath & Company

    • Cowan, J., (1998), On Becoming an Innovative University Teacher, Buckingham, OUP and SRHE

    • Kitchener, K.S. and King, P.M., (1990), “The Reflective Judgement Model: Transforming Assumptions About Knowing”, in: (J. Mezirow, Ed.), Fostering Critical Reflection in Adulthood, San Francisco, Jossey-Bass

    • Lukinsky, J., (1990), “Reflective Withdrawal Through Journal Writing”, in: (J. Mezirow, Ed.), Fostering Critical Reflection in Adulthood, San Francisco,

      Jossey-Bass

    • Moon, J., (1999a), Learning Journals: A Handbook for Academics, Students and Professional Development, London, Kogan Press

    • Moon, J., (1999b), Reflection in Learning and Professional Development, Kogan Press, London

    • Moon, J., (2000), Critical Thinking for Students, 3rd Ed., Oxford, How to Books Ltd.

    • Perry, W.G., (1970), Forms of Intellectual and Ethical Development in College Years, New York, Holt, Rhinehart & Winston

    • Perry, W.G., (1999), Forms of Ethical and Intellectual Development in College Years, San Francisco, Jossey-Bass

    • Rogers, C.R., (1969: 1983), Freedom to Learn for the 80’s, Edinburgh, OU in Scotland


    Strategies for engaging students with their own learning

    Strategies for Engaging Students with Their Own Learning

    • Learning by ‘doing’ made them think

    • Doing what?

    • Technical enquiry

    • Record the ‘doing’=Learning Journal


    Strategies for engaging students

    Strategies for Engaging Students

    • Writing made them think

    • Critical thinking made them think


    Examples

    Examples

    • Find something for students to think about and practice the cognitive processes in critical thinking.

    • Extend this with small-group dialectic.


    Dialectic

    Dialectic

    • The art of discussion which seeks to resolve conflict between two or more opposing theories rather than disprove any one of them

    • That branch of logic which teaches the rules and modes of reasoning


    Learning journals and reflective thinking an enquiry based approach aberdeen university

    Patience

    Allow students to make mistakes

    Let them discover the hard way

    Then take corrective action through

    Explanation

    Example


    Strategies for engaging students more examples

    Strategies for Engaging Students More Examples

    • What is thinking?

    • What is Reason?

    • Write to describe “a coin” from your pocket

    • What is “QUALITY in thought & statement”

    • Do we want quality in problem solving?


    Strategies for engaging students1

    Strategies for Engaging Students

    • Spatial Awareness

    • Draw diagrams

    • Concept maps

    • Brain maps


    Learning journals and reflective thinking an enquiry based approach aberdeen university

    Facilitation of Learning

    Get students to talk about their findings and raw ideas

    Promote discussion and extension

    Encourage discourse

    Foster dialectic -higher level intellectual process


    Strategies for engaging students more examples1

    Strategies for Engaging Students More Examples

    Write about

    • what you have been doing since the last entry

    • Did anything prevent you form any particular work?

    • What will be your next piece of work?


    Learning journal4

    Learning Journal

    Find and record information

    +

    Thinking

    +

    Writing

    =

    Critical reflexion


    Feedback from students

    Feedback from students

    • Learning by ‘doing’ made them think

    • Record the ‘doing’=Learning Journal

    • Writing made them think

    • Critical thinking made them think

    • Doing what?

    • Technical enquiry


    Learning journals and reflective thinking an enquiry based approach aberdeen university

    Linking

    Learning Journals and Reflexive Thinking

    George Allan

    School of Computing

    Ext. 6415

    Burnaby Terrace,

    Portsmouth PO1 3AE

    +44(0)2392 846415

    [email protected]

    http://www.tech.port.ac.uk/staffweb/allang/


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