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Wastewater Workshop in Nairobi 29-th August till 03-th September 2011. Monitoring. Dr.- Ing. Rainer-Werner Abendt Nuremberg Contact: [email protected] Effluent Standards (emission) Water Quality Standards (imission) Education Standards: labours and academic

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Dr ing rainer werner abendt nuremberg contact rainer abendt@gmx de

Wastewater Workshop in Nairobi

29-th August till 03-th September 2011

Monitoring

Dr.- Ing. Rainer-Werner Abendt

Nuremberg

Contact: [email protected]


Monitoring

Effluent Standards (emission)

Water Quality Standards (imission)

Education Standards: labours and academic

Health and Safety Standards

1

2

Monitoring

1

2

4

3

4

3


Monitoring1

Environmental laboratory for:

Self-monitoring;Industrial monitoring;Pollutans;Heavy polluters

Administration:

Finances;

Personnel

By-laws:

Connection approval;Industrial monitoring;Cost covering

Wastwater treatment works operation:Processes (provision under water law), maintenance, repair, sludge disposal

Wastewater disposal

(Discharge and treatment)

Sewer construction:

General drainage;Sewer network expansion;

Sewer operation:

Maintenance, repair, operation/control of storage space and outlets (provisions under water law)

Wastwater treatment works construction:Matching structures to requirements including commissioning

Monitoring


Monitoring2

Administration

Planning

Legal orders

Financial

management

Accompany projects

Personnel

Documentation

Automatic monitoring

Product 1

„Clean Water"

Treatment

plant

(Process system)

Product 2

"Sludge"

Maintenance

secure disposal

Legal orders

Machine

engineering

Demands on the sludge

Electrical

engineering

Laboratory

Automizitation

operating data

Building

Monitoring

Evolution in sewer network:- By-laws

government control

Urban area

Evolution of water crowd:

- Sewer construction

Evolution of Water quality:

- Sewer operation


Monitoring3

Monitoring

Demands on water quality (Europe):

COD

Ntot

Ammonia

BOD5

Suspended Solid

Ptot


Monitoring4

Monitoring

Mechanical Treatment (Nuremberg)

Influent

Air cleaner

Grit to disposal

Fat to digester

Ferric chloride for phosphorus removal

Grit to disposal

Sludge to digester

Mechanical Screens

Grit

Chamber

Primary Clarifiers

Influent

Screw Pumps


Monitoring5

Monitoring

Trickling filter

Air cleaner

Air

Gravity Thickeners

Trickling filter

claryfier


Monitoring6

Monitoring

Activated Sludge (BOD5)

Example for pure Oxygen

(high loaded)

Pure Oxygen

Sludge recirculation

Gravity Thickeners

Secondary Claryfiers

Screw

Pumps


Monitoring7

Monitoring

2. Activated Sludge (N) (low loaded)

Pressed Air

Denitrification

Nitrification

Recirculation

Carbon Substrate

Sludge recirculation

Gravity Thickeners

Secondary Claryfiers

Activated Sludge


Monitoring8

Monitoring

Suspended solid is important because:

1 mg solid matter equivalent to:

0.3 - 1.0 mg BOD5

0.8 - 1.4 mg COD

0.02 - 0.04 mg P

0.08 - 0.1 mg N


Monitoring9

Monitoring

Filtration (SS, N, P)

Sand Filters

(down stream)

Discharge of cleaned water

Sludge to primary clarifiers

Pressed Air

Water for clean up

Carbon Substrate


Monitoring10

Monitoring

Lab values are required for the management and optimization.


Monitoring11

Monitoring

  • Treatment plant system

  • Analysis volume (Lab value / on line - instruments)

  • Evaluation means


Monitoring12

QP 34

QP 35

30

31

44

16

50

61

34

35

17

62

64

66

68

PR 10

51

52

QP 36

14

PR 1

PR 4

PR 5

PR 6

PR 7

PR 2

03

04

06

08

11

13

15

01

REC

SAN

05

VKB

07

HLB

10

SLB

12

AWF

27

36

40

VOR

43

23

24

19

09

02

42

41

25

TST

26

37

38

63

39

22

32

21

53

65

wastewater

01 First input

02 Second input

03 Input mechanical screen

04 Input grit chamber

05 Output grit chamber

06 input primary clarifier VKB

07 output VKB

08 Input high loaded biology HLB

09 Raw water avoidance

10 Output secondary clarifier ZKB

11 Input low loaded biology SLB

12 Output secondary clarifier NKB

13 Input sand filter

14 Filter avoidance

15 Discharge treatment plant

16 Str.PW (AWF + EIN)

17 Str.PW (SF)

18 Special wastewater

19 Special wastewater in KW I

20 Special wastewater in B40/KW II

21 Special wastewater in SLB

22 Emergency outlet for special water

23 Withdrawal for cooling water TST

24 Return of cooling water (Ablauf)

25 Return of cooling water (VKB)

26 Water for cleaning stormwater tank RÜB

27 Emergency avoidance

20

QP 37

QP 32

QP 33

60

33

54

67

PR 3

Short cuts

AWF = Sand filter

B40 = Turbidity water storage

BZ = Input activated sluge

DHW = Special wastewater

HLB = high loaded biology

KW I = Treatment plant 1

KW II = Treatment plant II

MP24 = Mixing sample 24 h (input proportional)

NKB = Secondary clarifier

PR = Sampling

QP = Receiving control

PW = Pumping station

REC = Screener

RÜB = Stormwater tank

SAN = Grit chamber

SEA = Sludge dewatering

SF = Digester

SLB = Low loaded biology

SP = Random sample (8:00 Uhr)

TST = Sludge dryer

ÜS = Surplus

VKB = Vorklärbecken

VOR = mechanische Reinigung

ZKB = Zwischenklärbecken

18

Gas streams

60 Air for grit chamber

61 Exhaust from grit chamber

62 Degassing in primary clarifier

63 Production of oxygen

64 Exhaust

65 Aeration BB

66 Exhaust BB

67 Scavenging aif for filters

68 Exhaust from filter

Sampling (Symbols)

Sampling station

Sampling recipient

Receiving control

For balances sampling place

PR_1 – Main inputPR_2 - Output VKBPR_3 – Special wastewaterPR_4 - Output VKB

PR_5 - Input BZ

PR_6 - Output NKB

PR_7 – Output Treatment plant

PR10 – Turbidity water propotioning

QP32 - Substrate

QP33 - Methanol

QP34 – Flocculation aid

QP35 – Iron saline solution

QP36 – Iron saline solution

QP37 - Oxygen

Sludge / Solid matter

30 Surplus sludge KW II

31 Propotioning turbidity water KW I

32 Mechanical screen property

33 Grit chamber property

34 Turbidity water gravity thickener

35 Wastewater fro sludgedryer

36 Swimming matter outlet SF

37 Swimming matter outlet SF + VKB

38 Raw sludge outlet

39 Activated sludge outlet HLB

40 Activated sludge outlet SLB

41 Sludge water AWF

42 Emergency outlet VKB

43 Outlet befor screen

44 Sludge water AWF (KW II)

Chemikalien

50 Iron salt pre-precipitation

51 Iron salt simultaneous precipitation

52 Flocculation matter

53 Externel Substrate

54 Esternel Substrate (Methanol)

E

E

E

E

E

E

E

Monitoring


Monitoring13

Monitoring

Analysis volume (Lab value / on line - instruments)

  • -- Lab value

  • - Continuous measurements of the lab

  • - Measurements in the company on site


Monitoring14

Lab values

Measurements in Nuremberg (2003)

Edition of the inspectorate

Plant operation

Lab values (total)

16.179

5.998

Weekly random sample

9.880

156

(e.g. DS matter in Activated sluge tanks,

Microscope picture, etc.)

24 h Mixing sample

5122

858

(e.g. Discharge monitoring COD etc.

2 h Mixing sample

5.434

390

(e.g. Discharge monitoring COD etc.

Special tests

7

40

(e.g. Input, Arrangement tests to

Inspectorate tests etc.)

0

290

Receiving control

Monitoring


Monitoring15

Continuous measurements of the lab

(2003)

Edition of the

inspectorate

Plant operation

total

on line instruments

8

13,3%

52

86,7%

60

2

3,3%

0

0,0%

2

pH (con)

Conductivity (con)

0

0,0%

2

3,3%

2

1

1,7%

3

5,0%

4

Temperature (con)

Turbidity (con)

1

1,7%

4

6,7%

5

0

0,0%

10

16,7%

10

Dry matter value (con)

Redox value (con)

0

0,0%

1

1,7%

1

0

0,0%

3

5,0%

3

UV-Extinction (con)

O2 (con)

0

0,0%

1

1,7%

1

1

1,7%

10

16,7%

11

NH4-N (con)

NOx-N (con)

1

1,7%

10

16,7%

11

1

1,7%

4

6,7%

5

TOC (con)

1

1,7%

0

0,0%

1

PO4-P (con)

Ptot (con)

0

0,0%

4

6,7%

4

Monitoring


Monitoring16

Measurements in the company on site

(May 2003)

Total

EIN

HLB

SLB

AWF

Labor

35

12

23

31

2

101

( 13,1% )

Height of sludge surface

Flow measurement

16

13

51

10

7

90

( 11,7% )

Mass flow

5

3

1

0

0

9

( 1,2% )

Weight measurement

Pressure measurement

12

6

9

35

0

62

( 8,1% )

Rev counter measurement

3

0

1

0

0

4

( 0,5% )

Quality measurement

8

5

0

0

59

13

( 1,7% )

Oxygen probe

0

16

30

0

1

46

( 6,0% )

Electricity ammeter

9

31

6

4

0

197

( 25,6% )

Switch (Pressure,

91

54

25

27

16

50

( 6,5% )

Overcharge securing etc.

Calculated values

27

21

32

27

0

197

( 25,6% )

Total probes

206

161

178

134

85

769

(Water flow KW I)

( 26,8% )

( 20,9% )

( 23,1% )

( 17,4% )

( 11,1% )

Monitoring


Monitoring17

Monitoring

Different evaluate methods

  • - Discussion of measure lines

  • - Calculated values, e.g. calculation of load, reaction rates etc. - Statistical evaluation

  • - Correlation of measured values

  • - Calculation of economy


Monitoring18

Monitoring

Discussion of measure lines

  • - Usual working method for the observation of the plant on the process control system (real time)

  • - Optimization of automatic controller (on line, 1 min average off line)

  • - Breakdown consideration (real time, 15 min average off line) peak loads (15 min average off line)

  • - Year measuring lines (conzentration, load random samples, off line 24 h average sample, 8 h average, 24 h average)


Monitoring19

Monitoring

Computed values, e.g. calculation of load, reaction rates etc.

  • - Computed values for plant optimization / rating (off line 15 min AV, 24 h AV)

  • - Basis for further evalation (24 h AV)

  • - Standardization of the biological reaction activity to DS-salary and temperature (=> reaction rate)

  • - Definition of order of reaction (=> Question formulation: They are available for reserves in the system section?)

  • - Rating for associated arrangements (15 min AV)


Monitoring20

Monitoring

Statistical evaluation

  • - Are determined: Average (annual mean) standard deviation, 15 % und 85 % - Percentil - value for day load and concentration (basis Lab values)

  • - Computed values over years / values considers more than 10 years

  • - Occured in special cases ascertaining over Lab and on line values (temporary!)

  • - Computing of added curves and distributions for special question formulations (e.g. efficiency)


Monitoring21

Monitoring

Correlation of measured values

  • - Inspection of use of comparative value (on line) for not automatized measurements; e.g.UV-probe => TOC, BOD5, CODTurbidity => FS, DS-Salary

  • - Estimate of cross influencing of probe measurements

    FS = filtrated solid; DS = dissolved solid


Monitoring22

Monitoring

Calculation of economy

  • - Purchase of chemicals

  • - Definition / frame determination of operating conditions and formulation of destinations of the operating optimization

  • - Decision aid for construction of parts of treatment plants


Monitoring23

Monitoring


Monitoring24

Monitoring

My experiences as plant manager over 30 years:

The the staff needs continuous measured values those show the actual state (see table „Continuous measurements of the lab“).

But the best measuring instrument is the engaged and well developed employee. He has the best remote sensing:

- Nose for smell: every system section smells different. You can already recognize by odour whether the system section runs normal or there is a superload or an un-normal state. The employee can say with combined eyes where he is currently. He recognizes the place by odour.


Monitoring25

Monitoring

  • - Ears for noises: Machines or mobile parts cause noises if they work. You can at the noise may recognize, whether every ok is, or a damage announces itself.

  • Eyes for see:Is a plant in normal state?Coloring the water announces whether the activation works well or you have a superload or an un-normal state. The sludge on the water (color and crowd) tells you if the operating state is good.The microscopic picture shows whether enough oxygen is in water, etc.

  • Brain (Computer) for react:The employee can immediately intervene into the procedure.He can ward off dangers and costs with his experience.


Monitoring26

Monitoring

Which training is required in order to appertain to a good staff?Vocational training!


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