China
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China. Population Patterns. The People 92% ( 1.3 billion people) of Chinese people belong to the Han Ethnic group named for a powerful ancient ruling family Han rulers developed a culture whose influence has lasted to this day 8% belongs to about 55 different ethnic groups

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China

China


Population patterns

Population Patterns

  • The People

    • 92% (1.3 billion people) of Chinese people belong to the Han

      • Ethnic group named for a powerfulancient rulingfamily

        • Han rulers developeda culture whose influencehas lasted to this day

    • 8% belongs to about 55different ethnic groups

      • Non-Chinese ethnicgroups have their own separatehistories and cultures

        • Tibet- Buddhistkingdom

          • China took over in the 1950s


Population patterns1

Population Patterns

  • Taiwan- islandcountry off of China’s southerncoast

    • Most people descended from Chinesewho migratedto the island several hundredyears ago

      • Aborigines-related to peoples of SE Asia and Pacificregion

  • Mongolia- Most are ethnic Mongolians

    • Mongol ancestorsruled the largest land empire (China to E Europe)

      • Today they’re dividedby separate linguistic groups


Population patterns2

Population Patterns

  • Density and Distribution

    • More than 90% of the people live on 1/6 of the land in China

      • Most live in the fertile valleysand plainsof the three big rivers:

        • Huang He, Chang Jiang, and Xi River

      • Big cities: Shanghai, Beijing, Tianjin, and Guangzhou- lie in river valleys or coastal plains

    • Mongolia’s stepperegions have pop. density of 4people/sq. mile


Population patterns3

Population Patterns

  • Urban Growth

    • Most live on farms, but millions continue to migrateto the cities

      • Led to overcrowdingin some cites

      • Led to farm-laborshortages, so China built new agricultural towns in remoteareas

        • Provides more social services and better qualityof life

    • Gov’t has tried to limitpop. growth

      • 1979-China began a policythat allowed each familyto have no more than 1child

        • Not strictly enforcedanymore- pop. is growingagain


History and government

History and Government

  • Early History

    • China is a culture hearth- center from which ideasand practicesspread to surrounding areas

    • China’s culture began around 5,000 yrs ago

      • Historical recordswere first kept under the Shangdynasty (ruling family)

        • Took power around 1600BC in N. China plain

        • Faced rebellionsby local lords, attacks by nomads, and natural disasters

          • When gov’t was stableit fended these threatsoff

        • Whenever a dynastyended, the Chinese said they lost “the mandate of heaven.”


History and government1

History and Government

  • After the Shang, the Zhoudynasty ruled for about 800yrs

    • Culturespread, tradegrew, and they began making irontools

    • Confuciuslived during this time

      • Confucianism- a system of thoughtbased on disciplineand moralconduct

    • Lao-Tzu-helped form Taoism

      • Philosophy of living in simplicityand harmonywith nature


History and government2

History and Government

  • Around 200 BC, Qin Shi Huang Diunited all of China and built the first section of the Great Wall (to ward off attacksfrom C. Asia)

  • Han and Tang- tradersand missionariestook Chinese culture to all of E Asia

  • Ming- Zheng He (explorer) reached to coast of E Africa

  • Qing- ruled from mid-1600s to early 1900s

    • By then, Westerncountries had set up shippingroutes, hoping to share in the region’s rich trade in silkand tea

    • 1800s- Europeans used powerful warshipsto forceChina to open their ports

      • These were called Spheres of Influence


History and government3

History and Government

  • Modern China

    • 1911- a revolutionled by Sun Yat-sen ended the rule of emperorsin China

    • 1927- Chaing Kai-shekformed the Nationalist gov’t of the Republic of China

      • At the same time, Mao Zedong (communist) gained support from farmers

        • After years of civil war, the Communistswon power in 1949

        • Nationalists fled to Taiwan

    • 1950s- large gov’t owned farmsreplaces smallerones

      • New farms failedto produce, though

        • Millions diedand economy crumbled

    • 1970s- Deng Xiaoping allowed private ownershipof businesses and farms

      • Even welcomed foreignbusinesses and technology

    • 1990s- Communistparty still rules, but they had

      pressure to modernize

      • This opened up their economyto free market influences

        • Today, it is more socialistthan communist


Culture

Culture

  • Education and Health Care

    • In the past, only the wealthylearned to readand write

      • Communist gov’t has pushed to increaseliteracy

    • 1960s- Cultural Revolution, literacy suffered a setback

      • Schoolsand factories closed

        • People believed to be enemiesof Mao Zedong’s communism were persecuted

        • After his death, they refocused on educationand literacyhas steadily risen

    • Better health care has increased life expectancy to 70 yrs

      • Pay for treatment, but economic reformsmean fewer promised services


Culture1

Culture

  • Language and Religion

    • Most speak Mandarin

      • Use ideograms(pictures or symbols that stand for ideas)

    • Communistgov’t discourages religiouspractices, and many define themselves as atheist

      • Others still hold traditional faiths, like Buddhism, Confucianism, and Taoism

        • Tibet- restrict Buddhistpopulation

          • Face arrest for owning photos of the Dalai Lama


Culture2

Culture

  • The Arts

    • Ancient poetrydescribed human relationships and beautyin nature

    • Operauses elaborate costumes, music, acrobatics, and martial arts

    • Tang dynasty- made fine porcelain(china)

    • Cultural Revolution tried to wipe out traditionalarts, but they are slowly returning


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