Chemical properties of seawater
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Atomsa. fundamental particles of matter defining the elementsb. cannot be broken down into smaller particles using conventional chemical proceduresc. examples of some of the major elements comprising living things1) carbon (C) 4) nitrogen (N)2)

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Chemical properties of seawater

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Chemical properties of seawater


Atoms

a. fundamental particles of matter defining the elements

b. cannot be broken down into smaller particles using

conventional chemical procedures

c. examples of some of the major elements comprising

living things

1) carbon (C) 4) nitrogen (N)

2) hydrogen (H) 5) phosphorus (P)

3) oxygen (O) 6) sulfur (S)


  • Molecule

    A group of atom held together by chemical bond

  • Chemical bond

    The energy relationship between atoms that hold them together

  • Covalent bond

    A bond formed by shared pairs of electrons


  • Polar molecule

    A molecule with unbalanced charge. One end of molecule

    has a slight negative charge, and the other end has slight positive charge

  • Hydrogen bond (cohesive force and adhesive force)

    Relatively weak bond formed between a partially positive hydrogen atom and a partially negative oxygen fluorine or nitrogen atom of an adjacent molecule

  • H2Sand H2O


The dissolving power of water


  • Solution (solute + solvent)

    A homogeneous substance made of two component, the solvent and solute

  • Mixture

    A close intermingling of different substances that still retain separate identities

  • Ion

    An atom (or small group of atoms) that becomes electrically charged by gaining or losing one or more electrons


  • ?


  • Ionic bond

    A chemical bond resulting from attraction between oppositely charged ions

  • Diffusion

    The movement of molecules from a region of high concentration to a region of low concentration



Seawater


Source of the Oceans salts


  • 5 x 1019 1 600

  • excess volatiles ( )


Principle of constant proportions


Although the total of dissolved solids might vary among sample, the ratio of major salts in sample of seawater from many location was constant

The constant ratio is known as Frochhammers principle or the principle of constant proportions


Salinity and Chlorinity


  • (salinity) 1

  • (chlorinity) 1

    Salinity = 1.80655 x Chlorinity


Chemical equilibium and Residence times


?


  • (residence time)

    = A / (dA/dt)

    A =

    dA/dt =

    =


Conservative and nonconservative constituents


  • conservative constituents

    An element that occurs in constant proportion in seawater and change very slowly through time (have a long residence time)

  • nonconservative constituents

    An element whose proportion in seawater varies with time and place, depending on biological demand or chemical activity (short residence time)


Dissolved gases


  • (48% of the dissolved gas in seawater)

    - The upper layer of ocean water are usually saturated with nitrogen

    - Living organisms require nitrogen to build protein and other biochemical substances

    - They cannot use the free nitrogen in the atmosphere and the ocean directly. It must be fixed into usable chemical form by specialized organisms


  • (36% of the dissolved gas in seawater)

    - The primary source of the oceans dissolved oxygen is its photosynthetic plants.

    - Since photosynthesis requires sunlight, most of the available oxygen lies near the oceans surface


  • - CO2 is quickly used by marine plants

    - CO2 is very soluble in water, though; the proportion of dissolved CO2 in water is about 15% of all dissolved gases


Acid-Base Balance


  • Acid

    A substance that releases a hydrogen ion in solution

  • Base

    A substance that combines with hydrogen ion in solution

  • pH

    A measurement of the acidity or alkalinity of a solution. Numerically, the negative logarithm of the concentration of hydrogen ions in an aqueous solution



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