Westward migration and indian wars
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Westward Migration and Indian Wars. Review. 1830s Indian Removal Act- legal to remove Indians from their land Worcester v. Georgia (1832) US Supreme Court says Indians have a right to the land Trail of Tears

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  • 1830s

    • Indian Removal Act- legal to remove Indians from their land

    • Worcester v. Georgia (1832)

      • US Supreme Court says Indians have a right to the land

    • Trail of Tears

      • Pres. Andrew Jackson will ignore the court case and forcefully remove Indians onto reservations in Oklahoma

Life of the plains indians
Life of the Plains Indians

  • Introduction of Horse

    • Introduced by Spanish

    • Change life of Plains Indians

      • Greater movement- follow Buffalo herds

      • Create war among tribes

  • Buffalo

    • Indians are nomadic- follow Buffalo herds

    • Rely on Buffalo for everything

      • Food, clothing, shelter, tools, weapons

Destruction of buffalo
Destruction of Buffalo

  • Westward migration will lead to destruction of Buffalo

    • Railroad tracks will replace grazing land

    • Settlers will hunt Buffalo for sport

  • Lead to ultimate destruction of Indian tribes

    • Be forced to adapt to new way of life

Indian wars
Indian Wars

  • Sand Creek Massacre (1864)

    • US army (led by Gen. Chivington) attacked and massacred Indians in Colorado

    • About 70-150 Indians killed, mainly women and children

    • “I saw the bodies of those lying there cut all to pieces, worse mutilated than any I ever saw before; the women cut all to pieces ... With knives; scalped; their brains knocked out; children two or three months old; all ages lying there, from sucking infants up to warriors ... By whom were they mutilated? By the United States troops ...” quote by John Smith

    • Fingers and ears were cut off the bodies for the jewelry they carried. The body of White Antelope, lying solitarily in the creek bed, was a prime target. Besides scalping him the soldiers cut off his nose, ears, and testicles-the last for a tobacco pouch ... Quote by Stan Hoig

Battle of little bighorn
Battle of Little Bighorn

  • Most famous Battle- June 25, 1876

    • Fought in Montana

    • Indians led by Sitting Bull and Crazy Horse

      • Combined group of Cheyenne and Sioux Indians

    • US Army 7th Cavalry- led by General George Custer

  • Custer and his men will be defeated and completely wiped out by Indians





Gen. Custer

Other battles
Other Battles

  • Nez Perce Wars

    • Chief Joseph in the 1870s

  • Geronimo and Apaches

    • Mid and late 1880s

End of indian wars
End of Indian Wars

  • Battle of Wounded Knee

    • Fought December 29, 1890

    • South Dakota

    • Sioux warriors, women and children slaughtered

    • Signal end of wars with Plains Indians

    • Most will be moved to reservations

Other events with indian wars
Other Events with Indian Wars

  • Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA)

    • First formed in 1820s

    • Became BIA in 1840s

    • Be involved in many events to assimilate Indians

      • Sending children to boarding schools to learn English and culture

  • Century of Dishonor

    • Written by Helen Hunt Jackson in 1881

    • Book will discuss the injustices of the US government toward Indians (show that the US govt. often broke treaties made with Indians)

Dawes act
Dawes Act

  • Passed by Congress in 1887

  • Goal- assimilate Indians into American society

    • Assimilate means to change (in this case under force) the culture of someone or a group

    • Ways Dawes Act will assimilate

      • Force Indians to become farmers

      • Force children to learn English and attend boarding schools

      • Indians will start to attend Protestant faiths and forget their tribal languages and religions