Introduction to herpes viruses
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Introduction to Herpes Viruses. Hugh B. Fackrell Filename: Herpes1.ppt [email protected] Herpes Viruses. Group characteristics Herpes simplex 1 Herpes simplex 2. VP26 Assembly in HSV-1 Capsid. Herpes Virus Outline. Structure Classification Multiplication Clinical manifestations

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Introduction to Herpes Viruses

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Introduction to herpes viruses

Introduction to Herpes Viruses

Hugh B. Fackrell

Filename: Herpes1.ppt

[email protected]


Herpes viruses

Herpes Viruses

Group characteristics

Herpes simplex 1

Herpes simplex 2


Vp26 assembly in hsv 1 capsid

VP26 Assembly in HSV-1 Capsid


Herpes virus outline

Herpes Virus Outline

  • Structure

  • Classification

  • Multiplication

  • Clinical manifestations

  • Epidemiology

  • Diagnosis

  • Control

Baron’s Web Site


Herpes have a unique structure

Herpes have a Unique Structure

  • dsDNA core

  • Iscadeltahedral protein capsid

  • amorphous tegument

  • lipid envelope with glycoproteins


Human herpesvirus subfamilies

Human Herpesvirus Subfamilies

  • herpesvirinae

  • herpesvirinae

  • herpesvirinae

Infect both vertebrate and non vertebrate

>100 types characterized

6 types infect humans


Bovine herpes

Bovine Herpes

  • Mammillitus


Herpesvirinae

Herpesvirinae

  • Human herpesvirus 1 -HHV1

    Herpes simplex type 1-HSV1

  • Human Herpesvirus 2 -HHV2

    Herpes simplex type 2 -HSV2

Short replicative cycle

Rapid cytopathology

Broad host range


Animations of hsv

Animations of HSV

  • Receptor Binding

  • RNA Transcription in productive infection

  • Latent Infections

  • DNA Replication

  • Encapsidation and Release

Click here to view Dr. Ed. Wagner, superb series of animations on HSV on the internet


Herpes simplex virus

Herpes simplex virus


Herpes simplex virus1

Herpes simplex virus

Isolated from a patient with shingles


Herpesvirinae1

Herpesvirinae

  • Human Herpesvirus 5 -HHV5

    Cytomegalovirus- CMV

Long replicative cycle

Restricted host range

Slow cytopathology


Cytomegalovirus

Cytomegalovirus


Herpesvirinae2

Herpesvirinae

  • Human Herpesvirus 4 HHV4

  • Epstein-Barr EBV or EB

  • Human Herpesvirus 6 -HHV6

Very restricted host range


Varicellavirus

Varicellavirus

  • genus in herpesvirus family

  • human herpesvirus 3 (HHV3)

  • varicella-zoster virus


Multiplication

Multiplication

Genes replicated in specific order

  • Immediate early genes

    • regulatory proteins

  • Early genes

    • enzymes for replicating viral DNA

  • Late genes

    • structural proteins

      Occurs in host cell nucleus


Latent infections

Latent Infections

  • ALL herpes viruses can establish latent infections. The viral genome may become incorporated into the host DNA or remain extrachromosomal

  • Latent viruses can be reactivated by stress, menstruation or uv light

  • Reactivation may be asymptomatic or lead to mild or severe disease.


Diagnosis

Diagnosis

  • Isolation of virus by tissue culture

  • herpevirinae cause cytopathic effects

  • intranuclear fluorescence of scrapings using fluorescent antibodies

  • PCR being developed

CMV retinitis is diagnosed clinically


Prevention of herpesvirus

Prevention of Herpesvirus

  • Vaccines

    • VZV vaccine being licensed

    • HSV1, HSV2, & CMV vaccines being developed

  • Passive immunization

    • pooled immunoglobulin

    • hyperimmune globulin


Anti herpesvirus drugs

Anti-herpesvirus drugs

  • Idoxuridine- herpetic keratitis

  • Trifuridine-herpetic keratitis

  • Vidarabine - wide range of applications

  • Acylovir-wide range of applications

  • Ganciclovir -CMV


Herpes simplex viruses

Herpes Simplex Viruses


Epidemiology of herpes simplex

Epidemiology of Herpes Simplex

  • HSV1 is transmitted by kissing or other contact with saliva

  • HSV2 is spread by sexual contact

  • HSV2 is spread nosocomially


Mucocutaneous infections caused by herpes simplex

Mucocutaneous infections caused by Herpes simplex

  • Gingivostomatis

  • Herpes simplex labialis (cold sores)

  • Genital herpes

  • Keratitis

  • Whitlows- health care workers

  • Herpes gladiatorum- wrestlers


Herpes simplex type 1

Herpes simplex type 1

  • Herpes labialis.

    • cold sores or fever blisters. text: page 569.

    • 2-12 day incubation period.

    • gingivostomatitis -- vesicles rupture.

    • latent virus in ganglia -- Herpetic keratoconjunctivitis -- ulcers can be identified by fluorescein staining.


Herpes simplex

Herpes simplex

  • Stomatitis


Herpes simplex1

Herpes simplex


Herpes simplex2

Herpes simplex

  • Stomatitis


Transmission hsv1

Transmission: HSV1

  • Transmitted by direct contact such as kissing or fondling; very common with young children.

  • Good personal hygiene does curtail the transmission.


Treatment hsv1

Treatment HSV1

  • The first drugs were used to treat conjunctivitis and keratitis

    • Iododeoxyuridine

    • trifluridine

    • adenine arabinoside

    • acyclovir


Treatment hsv11

Treatment HSV1

  • Iododeoxyuridine: direct application to the cornea

  • Trifluridine, Keratitis: direct application

  • Adenine arabinoside: direct application to the cornea. Intravenously injected, it reduces mortality from herpes encephalitis.

  • Acyclovir: is now the drug of choice, is the least toxic. Can be used topically, orally and intravenously.


Genital herpes hsv2

Genital Herpes HSV2

  • primary infection: vulva, vagina, cervix.glans penis, prepuce or penile shaft.

  • fever, malaise, anorexia, bilateral inguinal adenopathy.

  • sexually transmitted - highest rate among young adults.

  • Patients on immunosuppressive drugs


Neonatal herpes simplex

Neonatal Herpes Simplex

  • infants acquire the virus passing through the birth canal.

  • disseminated herpes - newborns; premature infants susceptible


Herpes simplex encephalitis

Herpes Simplex Encephalitis


Treatment hsv2

Treatment HSV2

  • Acyclovir does not cure the initial infection, but because it prevents the attachment of released virus from an infected cell, it ameliorates the disease. With aggressive treatment eventually the viruses disappear. It is not an effective cure for the latent stage.


Herpes simplex infection of egg membranes

Herpes simplex infection of egg membranes


Herpes intranuclear inclusions

Herpes Intranuclear inclusions


Herpes simplex syncytia

Herpes simplex Syncytia


Ctyopathic effect

Ctyopathic effect

Early

Late>


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