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Agenda. Handbook update Test? Due date for Handbook Social Influence: conformity, norms, groupthink Team time for Handbook Next week: Team and member performance assessment– Each team brings a proposal and instrument for assessment. Social Influence: Cohesion, norms & groupthink.

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Agenda

Agenda

  • Handbook update

  • Test?

  • Due date for Handbook

  • Social Influence: conformity, norms, groupthink

  • Team time for Handbook

  • Next week: Team and member performance assessment– Each team brings a proposal and instrument for assessment


Agenda

Social Influence: Cohesion, norms & groupthink


Agenda

Team cohesion, norms & groupthink

  • What is cohesion and why is it important?

  • How might you develop cohesion in a group?

  • What are the downsides to cohesion?

  • What is the relationship of cohesion to norms?

  • What are norms?

  • Where do norms come from?

  • What are the advantages and disadvantages of norms?

  • What is groupthink and its symptoms?

  • What is the effect of GT on a team’s performance?

  • Team consultation task to decrease GT


Agenda

The Advantages of High

Team Cohesion

  • High esprit!

  • Strong effort

  • Unified vision

  • Action oriented

  • High goal setting

  • Rapid decision making

  • Team commitment and loyalty

  • Member support & encouragement


Agenda

Solomon Asch Line Experiment:

How group pressure affects individual opinion on a task

Eight male students were arranged around a table as shown by the circles in the image below. Only one of them however was a real participant (shown in blue) the others were confederates of the researchers. The task was to identify which of the lines (A, B or C) was the same length as the test line (X). They answered out loud in turn and the confederates were all told to answer the same incorrect letter. The real participant was placed in his position because it would give him a chance to see what the other participants answers were, but not right at the end as he may become suspicious.

the (genuine) participants conformed on 32% of the trials and only 26% of people never conformed.


Agenda

Sherif (1935) Autokinetic Effect


Agenda

Bean counters unite!– Jesness study of conformity around an ambiguous task

Participants guessed at the number of beans in the jar before joining groups and comparing estimations.  Jenness found that participants guess at the answer, but when put into groups their answers start to converge around a similar estimate as individuals look to others for help. Unsure of the answer they look to others for guidance and support


Agenda

Zimbardo’s 1973 “prison” experiment (shades of Abu G’raib?)

24 volunteer college students at Stanford University were divided into “prisoner” and “guard” groups. Over several days the guards became more humiliating and abusive and prisoners became more rebellious, eventually reaching dangerous stress proportions. The experiment was discontinued when the effect were finally noted.


Agenda

Team Stages

of Development

3

2

4

1

Overview of GroupThink

Leadership

Promotion of

Team Cohesion

Advantages of Cohesion

Team Pressure

to Perform

Flawed

Organizational

Structures

Symptoms

of GroupThink

Consequences of

GroupThink

Counter

measures


Agenda

GroupThink Profile Scales

Team Cohesion: The level of commitment, loyalty, and team spirit experienced by team members

Pressure: Organizational culture and situational conditions that create stress and performance pressure on the team

Flawed Organizational Structures: A lacking of organizational and team procedures and controls by which team processes and outcomes are monitored

Group Think: Eight symptoms of decreased decision making effectiveness

Counter-measures: Internal and external procedures to monitor team processes and decisions in order to reduce the risk of groupthink and promote effective decision atmosphere


Agenda

When it hits the fan:

Consequences of GroupThink--faulty decisions

1. Fail to adequately determine their objectives and alternatives

2. Fail to adequately assess the risks associated with group decisions

3. Fail to cycle through discarded alternatives to reexamine their worth after a majority of the group discarded the alternative

4. Not seek expert advice

5. Select and use only information that supports their position and conclusions

6. Does not make contingency plans in case their decision and resulting actions fail


Agenda

+3sd

+2sd

+1sd

Mean

-1sd

-2sd

-3sd

GroupThink Profile for CSS-IT

Flawed

Organiz.

Structures

Group

Think

Symptoms

Counter

measures

Team

Pressure

Cohesion

130

49

87

90

120

112

42

76

78

103

94

35

65

66

86

O

O

O

76

28

54

54

69

O

O

52

58

16

43

42

40

11

32

30

35

22

4

21

18

18

52

81

89

30

52


Agenda

Reducing or Preventing Groupthink

  • Use scientific method--gather data, understand and

  • explore before conclusions

  • Brainstorm before discussing course of action

  • People in power positions (leaders) should refrain from early opinions

  • Invite outside experts--seek information that does not support preferred

  • course

  • Develop criteria for evaluating options against

  • Assess risks, revenge effects, and regret analysis

  • After initial solution, develop second solution

  • Make contingency plans

  • Devil’s advocate--Encourage members to raise objections & concerns

  • (challenge norms)

  • Multiple Advocacy--subgroups make different proposals

  • Have group be evaluated by persons separate from the leader

  • Second chance decisions

  • Have group members get feedback from constituents on tentative

  • decision

  • Develop multiple scenarios and contingencies for each scenario

  • Nominal group technique and Delphi method

  • Foster diversity in group membership


Agenda

Team Task (30”): Consultation to a team at risk for GT

  • Your team has been asked to consult with a high power executive team that a board of directors is concerns may be at risk for groupthink

  • You are to generate and prioritize a list of suggestions to reduce the risk

  • Consider interventions at all stages (e.g., reduce cohesion and other contributing factors as well as countermeasures)

  • Be prepared to explain how they would work


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