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IONIC BONDING. The attraction of opposites. What Is an Ionic Bond?. An ionic bond is the attraction of two oppositely charged ions . These ions combine and the opposite charges cancel each other out like the electrons and protons of an atom.

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The attraction of opposites


The attraction of opposites

What is an ionic bond
What Is an Ionic Bond?

An ionic bond is the attraction of two oppositely charged ions.

These ions combine and the opposite charges cancel each other out like the electrons and protons of an atom.

Combining the ions of different elements creates new matter that is useful to the world today.

For example, when a sodium atom bonds with a chlorine ion, they form sodium chloride which is table salt.

Electron transfer
Electron Transfer

  • When an atom has less than eight valence electrons it is not chemically stable and must get chemically stable,

  • It will lose electrons or gain electrons to fill its last energy level and therefore become chemically stable.

Ionic bonding
Ionic Bonding

  • Metals will always lose electrons to become chemically stable

  • Metals will form positive ions

  • Non metals will always gain electrons to become chemically stable

  • Nonmetals will always form negative ions

Example of an ionic bond
ExampleOf An Ionic Bond

  • When a sodium atom and a chlorine atom combine, sodium’s one valence electron gets transferred or moved to the chlorine atom.

  • Both atoms are now ions;

    • sodium is positive and

    • chlorine is negative.

    • The ions attract each other and bond.

  • These two form Sodium Chloride, which is table salt.

Diagram na cl
Diagram: Na + Cl

Sodium’s 1 valence electron is transferred to Chlorine.

Result na cl nacl
Result: Na + Cl  NaCl

Sodium is now stable too (8 valence electrons).

Chlorine is stable(8 valence electrons).

Forming ionic bonds things to remember
Forming Ionic BondsThings to remember!

  • An ionic bond is the attraction between two oppositely charged ions.

  • Oppositelychargedionsattracteachother.

  • Ionic bonds are formed when electrons are taken and not shared.

Pictures of forming ionic bonds
Pictures of Forming Ionic Bonds

The ions attract each other. Therefore, they bond.

Ionic bonding forms compounds
Ionic bonding forms compounds

  • Ionic bonding doesn’t form molecules

  • The oppositely charged ions are attracted to each other – forming very strong bonds!!

Crystal shape
Crystal Shape

  • Every ion in an ionic bond is attracted to ions near it that have an opposite charge.

  • Because of this, all the ions attract many ions.

  • Therefore, they create a shape.

  • This shape is 3-D and is called the crystalshape.

Characteristic of ionic bonds
Characteristic of ionic bonds:

  • Crystal Shape

  • Ionic solids are generally high melting points

  • Ionic solids are hard and brittle

  • Ionic solids conduct electricity only when they are dissolved in water

Electrical conductivity
Electrical Conductivity

  • When ionic compounds are dissolved in water, they conductelectricity.

  • When they are solid, they don’tconduct.

  • The ions are tightlybound together and have no room to move or let the electricity flow through.

  • When dissolved, the ions move more freely; therefore, electricity can flow through them.

High melting points
High Melting Points

  • Ionic Bonds are verystrong.

  • It takes a lot of heat (energy) to make the particles have enough energy to overcome the attractive forces.

  • Ionic bonds are so strong that all ionic bonds are solids at room temperature.

Elements which form this bond
Elements Which Form This Bond

Metal + Nonmetal = Ionic Bond

Common ions which form this bond












Common Ions Which Form This Bond

Pictures of atomic bonds
Pictures Of Atomic Bonds

Covalent Bond

Ionic Bond

Polyatomic ions
Polyatomic Ions

  • A Polyatomic ion is an electricallychargedcollection of more than one atom. Polyatomic ions usually have a charge because the collection of atoms has either gained or lost an electron.

  • Each polyatomic ion has an overall positive or negative charge. If a polyatomic ion combines with an ion of an opposite charge, an ionic compound forms.

Example of a polyatomic ion
Example of A Polyatomic Ion

  • Carbonate ion (CO32-), made of 1 carbon atom & 3 oxygen atoms.

  • Combines with Calcium ion (Ca2+).

  • Makes Calcium Carbonate (CaCO3)

Did you understand
Did You Understand?

  • What properties do ionic compounds have?

  • Why are ions in ionic compounds attracted to each other?

  • What are polyatomic ions?

  • What is the process of Ionic Bonding?

  • Summary: What is an Ionic Bond?

Covalent bonding1
Covalent Bonding

  • Covalent Bond:

    • a bond formed by the sharing of electrons between atoms. (does NOT form charges)

    • Made up of nonmetals

  • Molecule: a neutral group of atoms joined together by covalent bonds. (Compounds formed with ionic bonds do NOT have molecules)

  • Molecular Formula: chemical formula for a molecular compound. It shows how many atoms of each element a molecule contains.

Covalent bonding2
Covalent Bonding

  • Examples:

    ascorbic acid (vitamin C): C6H8O6

    C_____, H_____, O_____,

    trinitrotoluene (TNT): C7H5N3O6

    C_____, H_____, N_____, O_____,








Molecular nomenclature


Molecular Nomenclature

  • Prefix System (binary compounds)

    • Less electronegativeatom comes first.

      2. Add prefixes to indicate # of atoms. Omit mono- prefix on first element.

      3. Change the ending of the second element to -ide.

Molecular nomenclature1























Molecular Nomenclature

Naming covalent binary compounds
Naming Covalent Binary Compounds

diphosphorus pentoxide

P2O5 =

CO2 =

carbon dioxide

CO =

carbon monoxide

N2O =

dinitrogen monoxide

phosphorous pentachloride =


dinitrogen tetrahydride =


dichlorine heptaoxide =


iodine dioxide =


Lewis structures




Lewis Structures

  • Electron Dot Diagrams

    • show valence e- as dots

    • distribute dots like arrows in an orbital diagram

    • 4 sides = 1 s-orbital, 3 p-orbitals

    • EX: oxygen


Lewis structures1


Lewis Structures

  • Octet Rule

    • Most atoms form bonds in order to obtain 8 valence e-

    • Full energy level stability ~ Noble Gases

Diatomic molecules
Diatomic Molecules

  • Diatomic Molecule: a molecule consisting of two atoms.

  • Diatomic molecules in nature:

  • H2, N2, O2, F2, Cl2, Br2, I2

  • “Professor BrINClHOF”

S of covalent bonds
#s of Covalent Bonds

Cl Cl



Single Bond: 2 e- shared

Double Bond: 4 e- shared

Triple Bond: 6 e- shared

Polyatomic ions and covalent bonding chlorate


Polyatomic Ions and covalent bonding “CHLORATE”

Chlorine has 7 valence e-


Cl O


Each oxygen has 6 valence e-

When ClO3 comes together they form 3 single covalent bonds

One additional electron completes chlorine with a full valence shell, making this a covalently bonded group with an ionic charge of -1

Polyatomic ions and covalent bonding carbonate


Polyatomic Ions and covalent bonding “CARBONATE”

Carbon has 4 valence e-




Each oxygen has 6 valence e-

When CO3 comes together they form 2 single covalent bonds and 1 double covalent bond

Two additional electrons completes carbon with a full valence shell, making this a covalently bonded group with an ionic charge of -2

Polyatomic ions and covalent bonding phosphate


Polyatomic Ions and covalent bonding “PHOSPHATE”




Phosphorus has 5 valence e-

Each oxygen has 6 valence e-

When PO4comes together they form 3 single covalent bonds

Three additional electrons completes phosphorus with a full valence shell, making this a covalently bonded groupwith an ionic charge of -3

Bond polarity
Bond Polarity

  • Most bonds are a blend of ionic and covalent characteristics.

  • Difference in electronegativity determines bond type.

  • E difference: >1.7

  • E difference: 0.4-1.7

  • E difference: 0.0-0.4

Bond polarity1
Bond Polarity

  • Electronegativity

    • Attraction an atom has for a shared pair of electrons.

    • higher e-neg atom  -

    • lower e-neg atom +

Bond polarity2
Bond Polarity

  • Electronegativity Trend

    • Increases up and to the right.

Bond polarity3
Bond Polarity

  • Nonpolar Covalent Bond

    • e- are shared equally

    • symmetrical e- density

    • usually identical atoms

Bond polarity4



Bond Polarity

  • Polar Covalent Bond

    • e- are shared unequally

    • asymmetrical e- density

    • results in partial charges (dipole)

Bond polarity5
Bond Polarity

  • Nonpolar

    • e- shared equally

  • Polar

    • e- shared unequally

  • Ionic

    • e- transferred

  • E difference: 0.0-0.4

  • E difference: 0.4-1.7

  • E difference: >1.7

Bond polarity6




Bond Polarity

  • Nonpolar Covalent – equally shared e-

  • Polar Covalent - partial charges, e- shared unequally

Polar molecule
Polar Molecule

  • One end of the molecule is slightly negative and the other end is slightly positive

  • Caused by the presence of a polar bond in the molecule. (structure is not symmetrical)

  • A molecule that has two poles is called a dipolar molecule, or dipole.

Self test

. .

. .






Self Test

  • Is CO2 a covalent or ionic compound?

  • What is CO2 ’s name?

  • What is the electronegativity difference between C and O?

  • Does CO2 have polar bonds?

  • Is CO2 a polar molecule overall?

Quiz answer the following on a sheet of paper
Quiz - answer the following on a sheet of paper

  • The following ball-and-stick molecular model is a representation of thalidomide, a drug that causes birth defects when taken by expectant mothers but is valuable for its use against leprosy. The lines indicate only the connections between atoms, not whether the bonds are single, double, or triple (red = O, gray = C, blue = N, ivory = H):

    (a) What is the molecular formula of thalidomide?

2. Above is a ball-and-stick molecular model representation of acetaminophen, the active ingredient in such over-the-counter headache remedies as Tylenol (red = O, gray = C, blue = N, ivory = H):

(a) What is the molecular formula of acetaminophen?