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Potential Scaling Effects for Asynchronous Video in Multirobot Search. Prasanna Velagapudi 1 , Huadong Wang 2 , Paul Scerri 1 , Michael Lewis 2 and Katia Sycara 1 1 Carnegie Mellon University, USA 2 University of Pittsburgh, USA. Urban Search and Rescue (USAR).

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Potential scaling effects for asynchronous video in multirobot search

Potential Scaling Effects for Asynchronous Video in Multirobot Search

Prasanna Velagapudi1, Huadong Wang2, Paul Scerri1, Michael Lewis2 and Katia Sycara1

1Carnegie Mellon University, USA2University of Pittsburgh, USA


Urban search and rescue usar
Urban Search and Rescue (USAR) Multirobot Search

  • Location and rescue of people in a structural collapse

  • Urban disasters

    • Landslides

    • Earthquakes

    • Terrorism

Credit: NIST


Usar robots
USAR Robots Multirobot Search

  • Robots can help

    • Unstable voids

    • Mapping/clearing

  • Want them to be:

    • Small

    • Cheap

    • Plentiful

Credit: NIST


Urban search and rescue usar1
Urban Search and Rescue (USAR) Multirobot Search

  • Now: One operator  one robot

    • Directly teleoperated

    • Victim detection through synchronous video

  • Future: One operator  many robots

    • Manufacturing robots is easy

    • Training operators is hard

  • Need to scale navigation and search


Synchronous video
Synchronous Video Multirobot Search

  • Most common form of camera teleoperation

    • High bandwidth

    • Low latency

  • Applications

    • Surveillance

    • Bomb disposal

    • Inspection

Credit: iRobot


Synchronous video1
Synchronous Video Multirobot Search

  • Does not scale with team size


Synchronous video2
Synchronous Video Multirobot Search

  • Does not scale with team size


Synchronous video3
Synchronous Video Multirobot Search

  • Does not scale with team size


Asynchronous imagery
Asynchronous Imagery Multirobot Search

  • Inspired by planetary robotic solutions

    • Limited bandwidth

    • High latency

  • Multiple photographs from single location

    • Maximizes coverage

    • Can be mapped to virtual pan-tilt-zoom camera


Hypothesis
Hypothesis Multirobot Search

  • Asynchronicity may improve performance

    • Helps guarantee coverage

    • Can review imagery on demand

  • Asynchronicity may reduce mental workload

    • Only navigation must be done in real-time

    • Search becomes self-paced


Usarsim
USARSim Multirobot Search

  • Based on UnrealEngine2

  • High-fidelity physics

  • “Realistic” rendering

    • Camera

    • Laser scanner (LIDAR)

[http://www.sourceforge.net/projects/usarsim]


Mrcs m ulti r obot c ontrol s ystem
MrCS Multirobot SearchMulti-robot Control System


Mrcs m ulti r obot c ontrol s ystem1
MrCS Multirobot SearchMulti-robot Control System

Status Window

Map Overview

Video/ Image Viewer

Waypoint Navigation

Teleoperation


Pilot study
Pilot Study Multirobot Search

  • Objective:

    • Find victims  Mark victims on map

  • Control 4 robots

    • Waypoint control (primary)

    • Direct teleoperation

  • Explore the map

    • Map generated online w/ Occupancy Grid SLAM

    • Simulated laser scanners


Experimental conditions
Experimental Conditions Multirobot Search

Arena 2

10 Victims

Arena 1


Experimental conditions1

Streaming Mode Multirobot Search

Panorama Mode

Panoramas stored for later viewing

Streaming live video

Experimental Conditions


Experimental conditions streaming mode
Experimental Conditions Multirobot Search(Streaming Mode)


Experimental conditions panorama mode
Experimental Conditions Multirobot Search(Panorama Mode)


Subjects
Subjects Multirobot Search

  • 21 paid participants

    • 9 male, 12 female

    • No prior experience with robot control

    • Frequent computer users: 71%

    • Played computers games > 1hr/week: 28%


Method
Method Multirobot Search

  • Written instructions

  • 20 min. training session

    • Both streaming and panoramas enabled

    • Encouraged to find and mark at least one victim

  • 20 min. testing session (Arena 1)

  • 20 min. testing session (Arena 2)


Metrics
Metrics Multirobot Search

  • Switching times

  • Number of victims

    • Thresholded accuracy


Victims found

Panorama Multirobot Search

6

Streaming

5

4

3

2

1

0

Within 0.75m

Within 1m

Within 1.5m

Within 2m

Accuracy Threshold

Victims Found

Average # of victims found


Trial order interaction

7 Multirobot Search

Panorama First

6

< 2m

< 1.5m

5

4

< 2m

3

< 1.5m

Streaming First

2

1

0

First Session

Second Session

Trial Order Interaction

Average # of victims found


Switching time streaming mode

12 Multirobot Search

10

8

6

4

2

0

0

20

40

60

80

100

120

Number of Switches

Switching Time (Streaming Mode)

p=0.064

Average # of reported victims


Switching time panorama mode

12 Multirobot Search

10

8

6

4

2

0

0

20

40

60

80

100

120

Number of Switches

Switching Time (Panorama Mode)

Average # of reported victims


Summary
Summary Multirobot Search

  • Streaming is better than panoramic

    • Perhaps not by as much as expected

    • Conditions favorable to streaming video

  • Asynchronous performance has potential

    • May avoid forced pace switching

    • May scale with team size


Synchronous scaling
Synchronous Scaling Multirobot Search

  • Objective:

    • Find victims  Mark victims on map

  • Control 4, 8, 12 robots

    • Waypoint control (primary)

    • Direct teleoperation

  • Explore the map

    • Map generated online w/ Occupancy Grid SLAM

    • Simulated laser scanners


Experimental conditions2
Experimental Conditions Multirobot Search

8

4

12


Experimental conditions streaming mode1
Experimental Conditions Multirobot Search(Streaming Mode)


Subjects1
Subjects Multirobot Search

  • 15 paid participants

    • 8 male, 7 female

    • No prior experience with robot control

    • Most were frequent computer users


Method1
Method Multirobot Search

  • Written instructions

  • 20 min. training session

    • Encouraged to find and mark at least one victim

  • 20 min. testing session (4 robots)

  • 20 min. testing session (8 robots)

  • 20 min. testing session (12 robots)


Metrics1
Metrics Multirobot Search

  • Explored regions

  • Number of victims

  • Neglect tolerance

  • Switching times

  • Number of missions

  • NASA-TLX workload


Explored region
Explored Region Multirobot Search

Area explored


Victims found1
Victims Found Multirobot Search

Number of Victims


Victims found per robot
Victims Found per Robot Multirobot Search

Number of Victims


Neglected robots
Neglected Robots Multirobot Search

Totally

Number of Robots

Initial Move


Switch times
Switch Times Multirobot Search

Number of Switches


Mission numbers
Mission Numbers Multirobot Search

Number of Missions


Nasa tlx workload
NASA-TLX Workload Multirobot Search

Workload


Fan out
Fan-out Multirobot Search

(Neglect Tolerance)

(Interaction Time)


Summary1
Summary Multirobot Search

  • Bounded number of directly controllable robots between 8 and 12

    • Diminishing returns as robots are added

    • Performance drops above 8 robots

  • Fan-out parallels the number of robots operator controls

    • Operators using satisficing strategy


Asynchronous scaling proposed
Asynchronous Scaling (Proposed) Multirobot Search

  • Objective:

    • Find victims  Mark victims on map

  • Control 4, 8, 12 robots

    • Waypoint control (primary)

    • Direct teleoperation

  • Explore the map

    • Map generated online w/ Occupancy Grid SLAM

    • Simulated laser scanners


Experimental conditions3
Experimental Conditions Multirobot Search

8

4

12


Experimental conditions panorama mode1
Experimental Conditions Multirobot Search(Panorama Mode)


Method2
Method Multirobot Search

  • Written instructions

  • 20 min. training session

    • Both streaming and panoramas enabled

    • Encouraged to find and mark at least one victim

  • 20 min. testing session (4 robots)

  • 20 min. testing session (8 robots)

  • 20 min. testing session (12 robots)


Metrics2
Metrics Multirobot Search

  • Explored regions

  • Number of victims

  • Neglect tolerance

  • Switching times

  • Number of missions

  • NASA-TLX workload


Expected contributions
Expected Contributions Multirobot Search

  • Determine when asynchronicity is useful

    • Advantages for larger team sizes

    • Simultaneous search is not viable

  • Establish performance baselines for asynchronous search


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