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Memory. “Learning is the process by which we acquire knowledge about the world, while memory is the process by which that knowledge is encoded, stored and later retrieved.” Eric Kandel Computer-based model. Memory.

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Memory
Memory

  • “Learning is the process by which we acquire knowledge about the world, while memory is the process by which that knowledge is encoded, stored and later retrieved.”

    • Eric Kandel

  • Computer-based model


Memory1
Memory

  • “Learning refers to the process by which experiences change our nervous system and hence our behaviour. We refer to these changes as memory… Experiences are not ‘stored’, rather they change the way we perceive, perform, think and plan. They do so by physically changing the structure of the nervous system, altering neural circuits that participate in perceiving, performing, thinking and planning.”

    • Neil Carlson


Learning and memory task
Learning and Memory Task

  • Verbal Paired Associates

    • Get a piece of paper and pen.

    • Write 1 to 8 down the left side.


Modal memory model atkinson shiffrin 1968
Modal Memory Model (Atkinson & Shiffrin, 1968)

W. W. Norton


Atkinson and shifrin s model
Atkinson and Shifrin’s model

rehearsal

Iconic/

Echoic

Sensory

registers

recoding

STM

LTM

receptors

unlimited

~1s

1-~5s


Stm is limited
STM is Limited

  • I’m going to read 16 numbers out loud. After listening to the numbers, you will be asked to recall as many as you can in the correct order.


Stm is limited1
STM is Limited

  • 1 8 6 7 1 8 1 2 1 4 9 2 2 0 0 3


Stm is limited2
STM is Limited

  • Now I’m going to read four dates out loud, saying each number individually. The first three years (12 numbers) are important dates in history and the last year is the current year. After listening, you will be asked to recall as many of the numbers in the correct order as possible.


Stm is limited3
STM is Limited

  • Memory span. Only about 7 items (plus or minus 2) can be reported in sequence (Miller, 1956).



Rapid decay
Rapid decay

Count backwards from 108 in 7’s



Stm is limited4
STM is Limited

  • Memory span. Only about 7 items can be reported in sequence (Miller, 1956).

  • Peterson & Peterson (1959). Rapid decay of memory for short lists if rehearsal prevented.

    • For example, phone numbers are “lost” if interrupted while rehearsing


Serial position effect
Serial position effect

Learn this list


Serial position effect1
Serial position effect

Limes, eggs, crackers, vanilla, radish, ketchup, soup, cereal, peas, syrup, cheese, potato, pork, carrots


Serial position effect2
Serial position effect

Write down as many as you can remember.


Serial position effect3
Serial position effect

  • How many students included:

Limes ____

Eggs _____

Crackers _____

Vanilla ______

Radish ______

Ketchup ______

Soup _____

Cereal _____

Peas _____

Syrup _____

Cheese _____

Potato _____

Pork _____

Carrots _____


07 06
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Stm is limited5
STM is Limited

  • Memory span. Only about 7 items can be reported in sequence (Miller, 1956).

  • Peterson & Peterson (1959). Rapid decay of memory for short lists if rehearsal prevented.

  • Recency in free recall. This is eliminated after 30s of interference (Glanzer & Cunitz, 1966).


Stm is limited6
STM is Limited

  • Memory span. Only about 7 items can be reported in sequence (Miller, 1956).

  • Peterson & Peterson (1959). Rapid decay of memory for short lists if rehearsal prevented.

  • Recency in free recall. This is eliminated after 30s of interference (Glanzer & Cunitz, 1966).

    All these measures suggest that a limited amount of recent information can be stored temporarily.


Acoustic similarity on stm
Acoustic Similarity on STM

  • Learn this list:

  • D V E T G P C


Acoustic similarity on stm1
Acoustic similarity on STM

  • Write down the sequence


Acoustic similarity
Acoustic similarity

  • D V E T G P C

  • Memorize this sequence:

  • K R T H D S W


Acoustic similarity1
Acoustic similarity

  • Which was more difficult?

    • DVETGPC

      or

    • KRTHDSW


07 05
07.05

W. W. Norton


Long term memory
Long-term memory

  • Not capacity limited

  • Different types/divisions such as implicit versus explicit


Explicit vs implicit memory
Explicit vs implicit memory

Techniques for investigation

  • Explicit

    • Free recall

    • Cued recall (e.g. paired associates)

    • Recognition

  • Implicit (vs incidental)

    • Skills (savings on relearning)


07 02
07.02

W. W. Norton


Semantic vs episodic memory tulving
Semantic vs Episodic memory (Tulving)

‘LTM’ Landauer and Freedman, 1968; Collins and Quillian,1969

Animal (breathes, moves)

Bird (has feathers, can fly)

Dog (has fur, barks)

Canary (can sing)

Alsatian (large, fierce)


Typicality
Typicality

Is this a bird?

Robin

Sparrow

Duck

Ostrich

Aeroplane

  • Good exemplars are quicker


Negative exemplars
Negative exemplars

Is this a fruit?

Cherry

Carrot

Brick

  • Usually slower than positive exemplars

  • Slowest if share common attributes


Proximity to boundary
Proximity to boundary

Reaction time

Close negative

(Rabbit)

Distant negative

(House)

Typical

(Robin)

Atypical

(Ostrich)

Borderline

(Aeroplane)


Proximity to boundary1
Proximity to boundary

Schizophrenic patients

Reaction time

Close negative

(Rabbit)

Distant negative

(House)

Typical

(Robin)

Atypical

(Ostrich)

Borderline

(Aeroplane)

Is this a bird?


3 processes of ltm
3 Processes of LTM

  • Encoding: information is processed prior to storage

  • Storage: the information is preserved in some form

  • Retrieval: the information is recovered and reported

  • Forgetting may be due to deficiencies in any of the these three key processes


Encoding
Encoding

  • Encoding is an active process

    • Selective attention

    • “next-in-line effect”

  • Levels of processing

    • Qualitative differences in how people attend to information

    • Three progressive levels (Craik & Lockhart, 1972)


Encoding levels of processing
Encoding: Levels of Processing

  • Shallow processing

    • Structure encoding

    • “Is the word written in capital letters?”

  • Intermediate processing

    • Phonemic encoding

    • “Does the word rhyme with weight?”

  • Deep processing

    • Semantic encoding


Encoding levels of processing1
Encoding: Levels of Processing

  • Deep processing

    • Semantic encoding

    • Elaboration

      • Linking stimulus to other information at time of encoding

      • Examples that illustrate an idea


Encoding levels of processing2
Encoding: Levels of Processing

  • Deep processing

    • Semantic encoding

    • Elaboration

      • Linking stimulus to other information at time of encoding

      • Examples that illustrate an idea

    • Visual imagery


Encoding levels of processing3
Encoding: Levels of Processing

  • Deep processing

    • Semantic encoding

    • Elaboration

      • Linking stimulus to other information at time of encoding

      • Examples that illustrate an idea

    • Visual imagery

    • Self-referent encoding

      • Deciding how or whether the info is personally relevant


Levels of processing theory
Levels of Processing Theory

  • The deeper the level of processing, the longer and more durable the memories will be.

  • Problems

    • How do we define “level”?

    • How do we determine whether one level is deeper than another?


Visual imagery dual code theory
Visual Imagery: dual code theory

Paivio (1971) proposed that imagery and verbal memory were two independent ways of remembering an item. This is supported by the fact that:

  • Concrete words are remembered better than abstract words

  • Pictures are remembered better than words.


Suppose you wanted to remember the following list
Suppose you wanted to remember the following list

  • Elephant

  • Flower

  • Desk

  • Cold

  • Key

  • Duck

  • Boat

  • High

  • Tea

  • Gloves


Mnemonics
Mnemonics

One is a bun

Two is a shoe

Three is a tree

Four is a door

Five is a hive

Six is sticks

Seven is heaven

Eight is a plate

Nine is a mine


One is a bun
One is a bun

elephant










Ten is a hen
Ten is a hen

gloves


How many can you remember
How many can you remember?

One is a bun

Two is a shoe

Three is a tree

Four is a door

Five is a hive

Six is sticks

Seven is heaven

Eight is a plate

Nine is a mine

Ten is a hen

Mnemonics


Storage
Storage

  • “bare bones” not “exact replica” of event


Storage1
Storage

  • How is knowledge represented and organized in memory?


Storage2
Storage

  • How is knowledge represented and organized in memory?

    • clustering


Storage3
Storage

  • How is knowledge represented and organized in memory?

    • Clustering

      • Tendency to remember similar or related items in groups


Storage4
Storage

  • How is knowledge represented and organized in memory?

    • Clustering

    • Conceptual hierarchy


Storage5
Storage

  • How is knowledge represented and organized in memory?

    • Clustering

    • Conceptual hierarchy

      • Multilevel classification system based on common properties among items



Storage6
Storage

  • How is knowledge represented and organized in memory?

    • Clustering

    • Conceptual hierarchy

    • Schemas


Storage7
Storage

  • How is knowledge represented and organized in memory?

    • Clustering

    • Conceptual hierarchy

    • Schemas

      • Organized cluster of knowledge about a particular object or event abstracted from previous experience

      • More likely to remember things consistent with your schema


Professor smith s office
Professor Smith’s Office

  • Write down what you saw in the office.


Professor smith s office1
Professor Smith’s Office

  • What did you see?

    • Desks

    • Chairs

    • Books

    • Filing cabinets

    • Wine bottle

    • Picnic table


Storage8
Storage

  • How is knowledge represented and organized in memory?

    • Clustering

    • Conceptual hierarchy

    • Schemas

    • Scripts

      • A kind of schema

      • Organizes what people know about common activities


Script
Script

“The procedure is actually quite simple. First arrange things into different bundles depending on make-up. Don’t do too much at once. In the short run this may not seem important, however, complications easily arise. A mistake can be costly. Next, find facilities. Some people must go elsewhere for them. Manipulation of appropriate mechanisms should be self-explanatory. Remember to include all other necessary supplies.


Script cont
Script cont.

“Initially the routine will overwhelm you, but soon it will become just another facet of life. Finally, rearrange everything into their initial groups. Return these to their usual places. Eventually they will be used again. Then the whole cycle will have to be repeated.”


Storage9
Storage

  • How is knowledge represented and organized in memory?

    • Clustering

    • Conceptual hierarchy

    • Schemas

    • Scripts

    • Semantic networks

      • Nodes representing concepts that are joined


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07.09

W. W. Norton


Retrieval getting info out
Retrieval: Getting Info Out

  • Encoding specificity principle (Tulving)

    • Any stimulus that is encoded along with the experience can later trigger memory

    • Context cues

  • State-dependent memory

    • Match between internal states during encoding and recall

  • Semantic network


Retrieval
Retrieval

  • Memories are reconstructions of the past

    • May be distorted

      • To fit with own established schemas

    • May include details that did not actually occur


Retrieval1
Retrieval

  • Memories are reconstructions of the past

    • May be distorted

      • To fit with own established schemas

    • May include details that did not actually occur

    • Source monitoring errors (misattributions)

      • Mix up fictional info from movies and novels with factual information from news reports and personal experience


Retrieval2
Retrieval

  • Memories are reconstructions of the past

    • May be distorted

    • May include details that did not actually occur

    • Source monitoring errors (misattributions)

      • Reality monitoring errors

        • Memories based on external or internal sources

        • “Did I turn off the stove or did I imagine doing it?”


Retrieval3
Retrieval

  • Memories are reconstructions of the past

    • May be distorted

    • May include details that did not actually occur

    • Source monitoring errors (misattributions)

    • Schema/scripts


Retrieval4
Retrieval

  • Memories are reconstructions of the past

    • May be distorted

    • May include details that did not actually occur

    • Source monitoring errors (misattributions)

    • Schema/scripts

    • Categorization – limited attention to details


Retrieval5
Retrieval

  • Memories are reconstructions:

    • May be distorted

    • May include details that did not actually occur

    • Source monitoring errors (misattributions)

    • Schema/scripts

    • Categorization – no attention to details

    • suggestibility


Say each word out loud
Say each word out loud:

  • Nice

  • Honey

  • Soda

  • Chocolate

  • Heart

  • Cake

  • Sour

  • Candy

  • Sugar

  • Bitter

  • Good

  • Taste

  • Tart

  • Tooth

  • pie


Write down the words you remember
Write down the words you remember

  • Did you remember:

  • Candy?

  • Honey?

  • Tooth?

  • Sweet?

  • Pie?


Memories are reconstructions
Memories are reconstructions:

  • May be distorted

  • May include details that did not actually occur

  • Source monitoring errors (misattributions)

  • Schema/scripts

  • Categorization – no attention to details


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Memories are reconstructions1
Memories are reconstructions:

  • May be distorted

  • May include details that did not actually occur

  • Source monitoring errors (misattributions)

  • Schema/scripts

  • Categorization – no attention to details

  • Suggestibility

  • Memory bias

    • To be consistent with current beliefs or attitudes


Repressed memories
Repressed Memories

  • Some recovered memory incidents have been substantiated by independent witnesses or belated admissions of guilt from the accused.

  • Vast majority have vehemently denied allegations of abuse and independent corroboration not available.


Repressed memories1
Repressed Memories

  • Sexual abuse is more widespread than most people realize.

  • Common for people to bury traumatic incidents.

  • Misinformation effect

    • Hypnotic pseudomemory

    • Suggestibility

    • Source-monitoring errors


Forgetting
Forgetting

  • Caused by deficiencies in encoding, storage, retrieval or some combination

    • Ineffective coding

      • Shallow encoding

        • absentmindedness

    • Pseudoforgetting

      • Lack of attention

    • Interference


Forgetting1
Forgetting

  • Interference

    • Blocking

    • Proactive interference

      • Prior info prevents learning of new info

    • Retroactive interference

      • New info interferes with ability to remember old info


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The physiology of memory
The Physiology of Memory

  • Biochemistry of memory

  • Neural circuitry of memory

  • Anatomy of memory


Biochemistry of memory
Biochemistry of memory

  • Alterations in synaptic transmissions

    • Increase or decrease in release of neurotransmitters

  • Epinephrine

    • Induces state of arousal

    • Acts through glucose

  • Opiates and alcohol

    • Depress neuronal activity

    • Interferes with memory


Neural circuitry of memory
Neural Circuitry of memory

  • Long-term potentiation creates localized neural circuits


Anatomy of memory
Anatomy of memory

  • Amygdala

    • “emotional memory”

    • Alteration of hormonal and neurotransmitter release due to stress

  • Hippocampus

    • “consolidation”

      • Functions to bind together individual elements of a specific memory which are stored in widely distributed areas of the cortex

    • Contextual learning

    • Spatial memory


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Anatomy of memory1
Anatomy of Memory

  • Frontal lobes

    • Working memory

      • Hold information in working memory (“on-line”) to allow comparisons, problem solving, follow conversations etc.

    • Temporal sequences

      • Which event happened first


Anatomy of memory2
Anatomy of Memory

  • Hemispheric differences

    • Left hemisphere

      • Verbal information

    • Right hemisphere

      • Non-verbal information


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