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AP ENVS. WED DEC 18 2013. UNIT 3: THE LIVING WORLD. CHAPTER 3: EVOLUTION, BIODIVERSITY, AND POPULATION ECOLOGY. THE UNIT: CHAPS 3, 4, 5 (16). LEVELS OF ECOLOGICAL ORGANIZATION ECOSYSTEM COMMUNITY POPULATION INDIVIDUAL. CHAPTER 3: POPULATION LEVEL.

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Ap envs

AP ENVS

WED DEC 18 2013


Unit 3 the living world
UNIT 3: THE LIVING WORLD

CHAPTER 3: EVOLUTION, BIODIVERSITY, AND POPULATION ECOLOGY


The unit chaps 3 4 5 16
THE UNIT: CHAPS 3, 4, 5 (16)

  • LEVELS OF ECOLOGICAL ORGANIZATION

  • ECOSYSTEM

  • COMMUNITY

  • POPULATION

  • INDIVIDUAL


Chapter 3 population level
CHAPTER 3: POPULATION LEVEL

  • A population is a collection of individuals of the same species, living within the same geographic location and within the same community and ecosystem.

  • For life-forms that reproduce sexually, there will be variability of traits within that population.

  • Individual variability will also arise out of genetic mutation




As a young man
AS A YOUNG MAN... BIGGER!

“I don’t feel too well!”





One big island two smaller islands
ONE BIG ISLAND----- BIGGER!TWO SMALLER ISLANDS

  • ISLAND A: Mountainous, Dry climate

  • ISLAND B: Exposed, Wet climate


Seeds
SEEDS BIGGER!


One big island two smaller islands1
ONE BIG ISLAND-------TWO SMALLER ISLANDS BIGGER!

  • ISLAND A: Mountainous, Dry climate, TOUGH SEED SHELLS

  • ISLAND B: Exposed, Wet climate, SOFTER SEEDS


Darwin s finches
DARWIN’S FINCHES BIGGER!

DRY ISLAND A, TOUGH SEEDS

WET ISLAND B,

SOFT SEEDS


Darwin
DARWIN BIGGER!

  • “BY JOVE! THE ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS SPLIT ONE SPECIES INTO TWO!”

  • “IT CHANGED THE SMALL-BEAKED BIRDS INTO BIG-BEAKED!”


Darwin1
DARWIN BIGGER!

  • “WOULD THIS ALSO OCCUR ON THE SAME ISLAND?”


Natural selection
NATURAL SELECTION BIGGER!

  • “A significant change in the environment will “select” out of a population those individuals possessing a trait that gives them an advantage.”

  • “These individuals will die at a slower rate than individuals without this trait, and will tend to find one another for mating with more frequency.”

  • “Over time, and generations, the original trait will be strengthened, as reflected in a higher and higher % of individuals with that trait....until a new species is formed.”


Island a
ISLAND A BIGGER!

  • FINCH LIFE-SPAN: 5 YEARS

  • TIME ZERO: 95% small-beaked, 5% big-beaked

  • 20 YEARS: 90% small-beaked, 10% big-beaked

  • 10,000 YEARS: 99% BIG-BEAKED


Divergent v convergent evolution
DIVERGENT v CONVERGENT EVOLUTION BIGGER!

  • DIVERGENT: Closely related species in different environments with very different selective pressures

  • CONVERGENT: Unrelated species in similar environments


Evolution working against mankind
EVOLUTION WORKING AGAINST MANKIND BIGGER!

  • ANTI-BIOTIC RESISTANCE

  • PESTIC IDE RESISTANCE



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