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AP ENVS. WED DEC 18 2013. UNIT 3: THE LIVING WORLD. CHAPTER 3: EVOLUTION, BIODIVERSITY, AND POPULATION ECOLOGY. THE UNIT: CHAPS 3, 4, 5 (16). LEVELS OF ECOLOGICAL ORGANIZATION ECOSYSTEM COMMUNITY POPULATION INDIVIDUAL. CHAPTER 3: POPULATION LEVEL.

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ap envs

AP ENVS

WED DEC 18 2013

unit 3 the living world
UNIT 3: THE LIVING WORLD

CHAPTER 3: EVOLUTION, BIODIVERSITY, AND POPULATION ECOLOGY

the unit chaps 3 4 5 16
THE UNIT: CHAPS 3, 4, 5 (16)
  • LEVELS OF ECOLOGICAL ORGANIZATION
  • ECOSYSTEM
  • COMMUNITY
  • POPULATION
  • INDIVIDUAL
chapter 3 population level
CHAPTER 3: POPULATION LEVEL
  • A population is a collection of individuals of the same species, living within the same geographic location and within the same community and ecosystem.
  • For life-forms that reproduce sexually, there will be variability of traits within that population.
  • Individual variability will also arise out of genetic mutation
as a young man
AS A YOUNG MAN...

“I don’t feel too well!”

one big island two smaller islands
ONE BIG ISLAND-----TWO SMALLER ISLANDS
  • ISLAND A: Mountainous, Dry climate
  • ISLAND B: Exposed, Wet climate
one big island two smaller islands1
ONE BIG ISLAND-------TWO SMALLER ISLANDS
  • ISLAND A: Mountainous, Dry climate, TOUGH SEED SHELLS
  • ISLAND B: Exposed, Wet climate, SOFTER SEEDS
darwin s finches
DARWIN’S FINCHES

DRY ISLAND A, TOUGH SEEDS

WET ISLAND B,

SOFT SEEDS

darwin
DARWIN
  • “BY JOVE! THE ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS SPLIT ONE SPECIES INTO TWO!”
  • “IT CHANGED THE SMALL-BEAKED BIRDS INTO BIG-BEAKED!”
darwin1
DARWIN
  • “WOULD THIS ALSO OCCUR ON THE SAME ISLAND?”
natural selection
NATURAL SELECTION
  • “A significant change in the environment will “select” out of a population those individuals possessing a trait that gives them an advantage.”
  • “These individuals will die at a slower rate than individuals without this trait, and will tend to find one another for mating with more frequency.”
  • “Over time, and generations, the original trait will be strengthened, as reflected in a higher and higher % of individuals with that trait....until a new species is formed.”
island a
ISLAND A
  • FINCH LIFE-SPAN: 5 YEARS
  • TIME ZERO: 95% small-beaked, 5% big-beaked
  • 20 YEARS: 90% small-beaked, 10% big-beaked
  • 10,000 YEARS: 99% BIG-BEAKED
divergent v convergent evolution
DIVERGENT v CONVERGENT EVOLUTION
  • DIVERGENT: Closely related species in different environments with very different selective pressures
  • CONVERGENT: Unrelated species in similar environments
evolution working against mankind
EVOLUTION WORKING AGAINST MANKIND
  • ANTI-BIOTIC RESISTANCE
  • PESTIC IDE RESISTANCE
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