Outline . The Kidney: It's Functions
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1. Technetium Kidney Imaging Agents
2. Outline The Kidney: Itís Functions & Failures
How to Detect Kidney Disease
The Role of Technetium
Process of Technetium Imaging
Precautions & Warnings
3. The Kidney: Itís Functions & Failures Your kidneys are bean-shaped organs, about the size of your fist.
Responsible for processing up to 200 quarts of blood a day, sifting out about 2 quarts of waste products and extra water.
Filtering occurs in nephrons in the kidney.
Regulates the bodyís level of sodium, phosphorous, and potassium.
Releases three hormones into your body.
4. Renal Function Sometimes the work your kidneys do can be referred to as itís renal function.
Your renal function tells the total percent of your kidney function.
Ex: if you have two healthy kidneys, you have 100% of your renal function.
You do not need 100% renal functioning.
5. How Your Kidneys Can Fail Diabetes
High Blood Pressure
Inherited Kidney Disease
6. Signs of Kidney Disease Frequent Urination
Pain in Lower Back
Darkening of skin
7. How To Detect Kidney Disorders Blood/Urine Tests
Glomerular Filtration Rates
8. Renal Imaging Renal imaging is the ability to monitor biochemical and physiological function of the organs in vivo.
Renal Imaging can include ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging, computed tomography (CT), and the use of radioisotopes as radio tracers.
9. Kidney Radioisotope imaging: Radioisotope imaging involves the ingestion of a radioisotope to help visualize an organ in the body.
Certain radioisotopes are readily absorbed by the kidneys, and this radioisotope is a tracer that probes an image and the functioning of the kidneys.
The functioning and imaging is produced by the radioactivity that is emitted.
10. Properties of Radioisotopes: Radiation must be able to penetrate the body, and be detected by instrumentation that is external to the patient.
The half-life must be sufficiently long enough to synthesize the radiopharmaceutical, but short enough to minimize radiation to the patient.
The radioisotope must be available and cost efficient.
11. Properties of Technetium: Technetium imaging agents are most effective for the use of kidney imaging.
Has a 6 hour half-life
Has gamma emission that can be detected by gamma cameras.
It is readily available.
It is cost efficient.
12. Properties of Technetium: Many technetium complexes are known, ranging from oxidation states of -1 to 7, most effective are the anionic compounds.
There are many different geometries of technetium complexes.
In some cases, the ligand system will determine the majority of chemical and physical properties of the complex.
13. How Tc Kidney Imaging Agents Work: Technetium is effectively taken up by the kidneys to detect an image and the functioning of the kidneys.
For patients with normal functioning kidneys, less than 15% of the initial activity remains in the blood after one hour, the rest passes through as urine.
For patents with renal disease, the blood clearance and urine excretion is delayed.
14. Imaging Detection Once the Tc complex is absorbed in the kidneys, the image is obtained by the gamma rays that are emitted by the complex.
The gamma rays that are emitted are detected by a gamma camera.
15. Benefits of Nuclear Imaging Nuclear medicine imaging shows not only the anatomy of an organ, but the function of the organ as well.
This additional functional information allows nuclear medicine to diagnose diseases much sooner than other medical imaging examinations which provide mainly anatomic information about an organ or body part.
Nuclear medicine can be valuable in the early diagnosis, treatment and prevention of numerous medical conditions and continues to grow as a powerful medical tool.
16. Imaging Detection The Tc complex emits gamma rays that are detected by the following gamma camera:
17. Imaging Detection A series of dynamic scans are obtained to evaluate the area of interest.
Then, a set of dynamic function curves are obtained over both kidneys, and if necessary, over parts of each kidney.
The first set of scans lasts approximately 150-200 seconds, images are obtained at a rate of 5 seconds, this set of data is used for imaging.
18. Imaging Detection In the next set of scans, images are obtained at a frame rate of 30 seconds for about 35-40 minutes. This set of data is the phase demonstrating renal function and after 3-6 minutes, renal excretion.
Evaluation of data in the first 60-150 seconds yields quantitative information on renal function, and thus the contribution of each kidney to total renal function.
19. Kidney Image
20. Different Tc Complexing Agents: Tc-MAG3
21. Tc-MAG3 (mercaptoacetylglycylglycylglycinatoxotechnetate)