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A - exam. Cost Sharing and Approximation. Martin P ál joint work with Éva Tardos. Cost Sharing. Internet: many independent agents Not hostile, but selfish Willing to cooperate, if it helps them. cost. Steiner tree. # users. cost. No sharing. # users. cost. Rent or buy. M. # users.

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cost sharing and approximation

A-exam

Cost Sharing and Approximation

Martin Pál

joint work withÉva Tardos

Martin Pál: Cost sharing & Approx

cost sharing
Cost Sharing
  • Internet: many independent agents
  • Not hostile, but selfish
  • Willing to cooperate, if it helps them

Martin Pál: Cost sharing & Approx

how much does it pay to share

cost

Steiner tree

# users

cost

No sharing

# users

cost

Rent or buy

M

# users

How much does it pay to share?

Martin Pál: Cost sharing & Approx

steiner tree how to split cost

4

3

4

2

2

3

?

3

1

0

4

4

2

4

3

?

3

2

3

?

Cost shares

Cost shares

Steiner tree: how to split cost

Martin Pál: Cost sharing & Approx

steiner tree how to split cost1
Steiner tree: how to split cost

OPT( ) = 3

OPT( ) = 5

p( ) = 5-3 = 2

No “fair” cost allocation exists!

Martin Pál: Cost sharing & Approx

utilities

u1’=5

p1=15

p1=0

Problem: users may not reveal true utilities

u2=25

p2=15

p2=22.5

u3=25

p3=15

p3=22.5

Utilities

uj – utility of agent j

u1=25

$45

internet

Martin Pál: Cost sharing & Approx

cost sharing mechanism
Cost sharing mechanism
  • ..is a protocol/algorithm that
  • requests utility uj from every user j
  • selects the set S of people serviced
  • builds network servicing S
  • Computes the payment pj of every user jS

Martin Pál: Cost sharing & Approx

desirable properties of mech s

ΣjS pj ≤ c*(S)

(competitiveness)

ΣjS pj ≥ c(S)/β

(approx. cost recovery)

Desirable properties of mech’s
  • ΣjS pj=c*(S)
    • (budget balance)
  • Only people in S pay
    • (voluntary participation)
  • No cheating, even in groups
    • (group strategyproofness)
  • If uj high enough, j guaranteed to be in S
    • (consumer sovereignity)

Martin Pál: Cost sharing & Approx

cost sharing function
Cost sharing function
  • ξ : 2UU ℛ
  • ξ(S,j) – cost share of user j, given set S
  • Competitiveness: ΣjSξ(S,j)≤c*(S)
  • Cost recovery: c(S)/β≤ΣjSξ(S,j)
  • Voluntary particpiation: ξ(S,j) = 0 if jS
  • Cross-monotonicity: for jST
          • ξ(S,j) ≥ ξ(T,j)

Martin Pál: Cost sharing & Approx

the moulin shenker mechanism
The Moulin&Shenker mechanism

Let ξ : 2UU ℛ be a cost sharing function.

  • S U
  • while unhappy users exist
    • offer each jS service at price ξ(S,j)
    • S S – {users j who rejected}
  • output the set S and prices pj = ξ(S,j)

Thm: [Moulin&Shenker]:

ξ(.) cross-monotonic  mech. group strategyproof

Martin Pál: Cost sharing & Approx

designing x mono functions
Designing x-mono functions
  • We construct cross-monotonic cost shares for two games:
  • Metric facility location game
  • Single source rent or buy game
  • Facility location: competitive, recovers 1/3 of cost
  • Rent or buy:competitive, recovers 1/15 of cost

Martin Pál: Cost sharing & Approx

facility location
Facility Location

F is a set of facilities.

D is a set of clients.

cij is the distance between any i and j in D  F.

(assume cij satisfies triangle inequality)

fi: cost of facility i

Martin Pál: Cost sharing & Approx

facility location1
Facility Location

1) Pick a subset F’ of facilities to open

2) Assign every client to an open facility

Goal: Minimize the sum of facility and assignment costs: ΣiF’fi + ΣjS c(j,σ(j))

Martin Pál: Cost sharing & Approx

existing algorithms

=4

=4

=6

Existing algorithms..

each user j raises its j

j pays for connection first, then for facility

if facility paid for, declared open

(possibly cleanup phase in the end)

Martin Pál: Cost sharing & Approx

do not yield x mono shares

with , ( )=6

without , ( )=5

was stopped prematurely in the first run

=5

=5

..do not yield x-mono shares

Martin Pál: Cost sharing & Approx

ghost shares

=4

=4

=5

Ghost shares
  • Two shares per user:
  • ghost share j
  • real share j
  • j grows forever
  • j stops when connected

Martin Pál: Cost sharing & Approx

easy facts
Easy facts

Fact 1: cost shares j are cross-monotonic.

Pf: More users opens facilities faster  each j can only stop growing earlier.

Fact 2 [competitiveness]: ΣjSj≤c*(S).

Pf: j is a feasible LP dual.

Hard part: cost recovery.

Martin Pál: Cost sharing & Approx

constructing a solution
Constructing a solution

=2

tp:time when facility p opened

Sp: set of clients connected to p at time tp

facility p is well funded, if 3j≥tp for every jSp

each facility is either poisoned or healthy

p is poisoned if it shares a client with a well funded healthy facility q and tp> tq

tp=2

=2

tq =7

=7

Martin Pál: Cost sharing & Approx

building a solution

Well funded

p

q

≤tp1

≤tp

≤tp1

...

tp

tp1 ≤ j

tq

j≤tp/3

healthy

 c(p,q’) ≤tp

q’

Building a solution

Open all healthy well funded facilities

Assign each client to closest facility

Fact 1: for every facility p, there is an open facility q within radius 2tp.

c(p,q) ≤2(tp-tq)

c(q,q’)≤2 tq

Martin Pál: Cost sharing & Approx

cost recovery

Fact 2: p open  clients in Sp can pay 1/3 their connection + facility cost

Pf: fj = ΣjS(p)tp – cjp and j≥tp/3

Sp

Fact 3: j is in no Sp can pay for 1/3 of connection

Pf: fj = ΣjS(p)tp – cjp and j≥tp/3

≤j

≤2j

open

Cost recovery

Martin Pál: Cost sharing & Approx

cost recovery1

Sp

≤j

≤2j

open

Cost recovery
  • Summary:
  • Cost shares can pay for 1/3 of soln we construct
  • Never pay more than cost of the optimum
  • With increasing # of users, individual share only decreases

Martin Pál: Cost sharing & Approx

single source rent or buy
Single source rent or buy

A set of clients D.

A source node s.

cij is the distance between any pair of nodes.

(assume cij satisfies triangle inequality)

Martin Pál: Cost sharing & Approx

single source rent or buy1

#paths using edge e

cost of e

M

# paths

Single source rent or buy

1) Pick a path from every client j to source s.

Goal: Minimize the sum of edge costs:

ΣeE min(pe,M) ce

Martin Pál: Cost sharing & Approx

plan of attack
Plan of attack
  • Gather clients into groups of M
    • (often done by a facility location algorithm)
  • Build a Steiner tree on the gathering points

Jain&Vazirani gave cost sharing fn for Steiner tree

Have cost sharing for facility location

Why not combine?

Martin Pál: Cost sharing & Approx

one shot algorithm
“One shot” algorithm
  • Generate gathering points and build a Steiner tree at the same time.
  • Allow each user to contribute only to the least demanding (i.e. largest) cluster he is connected to.
    •  not clear if the shares can pay for the tree

Martin Pál: Cost sharing & Approx

growing ghosts
Growing ghosts

Grow a ball around every user uniformly

When M or more balls meet, declare gathering point

Each gathering point immediately starts growing a Steiner component

When two components meet, merge into one

Martin Pál: Cost sharing & Approx

cost shares
Cost shares

Each Steiner component C needs $1/second for growth.

Maintenance cost of C split among users connected

User connected to multiple components pays only to largest component

User connected to root stops paying

j =∫ fj(t) dt

Martin Pál: Cost sharing & Approx

easy facts1
Easy facts

Fact: The cost shares j are cross-monotonic.

Pf: More users causes more gathering points to open, more “area” is covered by Steiner clusters, clusters are bigger  each j can only grow slower&stop sooner.

Fact [competitiveness]: ΣjSj≤2c*(S).

Pf: LP duality.

Again, cost recovery is the hard part.

Martin Pál: Cost sharing & Approx

cost recovery2
Cost recovery

To prove cost recovery, we must build a network.

Steiner tree on all centers would be too expensive  select only some of the centers like we did for facility location.

Need to show how to pay for the tree constructed.

Martin Pál: Cost sharing & Approx

paying for the tree
Paying for the tree

We selected a subset of clusters so that every user pays only to one cluster.

But: users were free to chose to contribute to the largest cluster – may not be paying enough.

Solution: use cost share at time t to pay contribution at time 3t.

Martin Pál: Cost sharing & Approx

the last slide

Thank you!

The last slide
  • x-mono cost sharing known only for 3 problems so far
    • Do other problems admit cross-mono cost sharing?
    • Covering problems? Steiner Forest?
  • Negative result: SetCover – no better than Ω(n) approx
  • Applications of cost sharing to design of approximation algorithms.

Martin Pál: Cost sharing & Approx

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