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USDA Rural Housing Service MFH Buyers & Sellers Conferences 2010 Affordable Multi-Family Housing Energy-Efficiency and Green Building Goals for Rehab and New Construction Bill Downs, Architect - Chief Technical Support Branch Meghan Walsh, AIA, LEED AP - Architect. 515. 1.

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Mfh buyers

USDA

Rural Housing Service

MFH Buyers & Sellers Conferences 2010

Affordable Multi-Family Housing

Energy-Efficiency and Green Building Goals

for Rehab and New Construction

Bill Downs, Architect - Chief Technical Support Branch

Meghan Walsh, AIA, LEED AP - Architect

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Energy - Efficiency

"The American Clean Energy and Security Act“, which passed in congress on June 26, 2009, is a comprehensive approach to America's energy policy. The following are the sum of the goals of this bill:

- to save consumers energy costs

- to enhance America's energy independence

- to cut global warming pollution 

- to create new clean energy jobs

The legislation has received wide support from electric utilities; energy companies; manufacturing, industry, and corporate companies; labor unions; and community and environmental organizations.

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Energy - Efficiency

Presidential Executive Order 13514 of Oct. 5, 2009, “Federal Leadership in Environmental, Energy, and Economic Performance”

Focuses on the sustainability of federal facilities including energy-efficiency and carbon footprint reduction strategies.

Rural Development’s concerns are for very-low, low and moderate-income families spending disproportionate amounts of income on utility bills and for Agency spending on energy subsidies that are reliant upon fossil-fuel based energy production.

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Energy - Efficiency

Things to do at properties now (LOW-HANGING FRUIT):

Adopt a Green Plan for your property and hire a Green Certified Property Management Company. (See Enterprise Community Partners templates at www.practitionerresources.org/documents.html?c=263 ). Training by

NAHMA (www.nahma.org), NAA (www.naahq.org), IREM (www.irem.org) or an on-site, LEED AP.

Energy Reduction Strategies such as: monitoring thermostat temperatures by season and occupancy, replace lighting w/ fluorescent or LED bulbs, use light sensors, and reduce lighting where possible, Install Energy Star appliances, Replace toilets w/ low flush and showerheads with aerating low-flow heads. More suggestions in UL “Energy Conservation in Section 515 and Section 514 Multifamily Housing Properties”.

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Energy - Efficiency

Things to do at properties now (LOW-HANGING FRUIT):

Energy Reduction Tips and Incentives for Residents:

Create incentives for groups (by floor, by wing, etc.) to conserve less energy and make it a friendly competition. Give small rewards.

Give residents tools – a card/small poster, for example, that lists the suggestions noted in the UL such as: replacing bulbs with lower wattage bulbs, not running hot water more than necessary, calling management to report leaks immediately, use shades/curtains to help with passive heating/cooling, closing windows when heat or a/c are on, use cold water for laundry, do not block supply/ return grilles, etc.

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Carbon Footprint Reduction

WHAT IS A CARBON FOOTPRINT? A measure of the amount of carbon dioxide produced by a person, organization, or location at a given time. Your carbon footprint takes into account all of the processes involved in your activities and consumption of any product.

Carbon dioxide is a greenhouse gas that contributes to global warming . Other greenhouse gases which might be emitted as a result of your activities are e.g. methane and ozone. These greenhouse gases are normally also taken into account for the carbon footprint. They are converted into the amount of CO2 that would cause the same effects on global warming (this is called equivalent CO2 amount).

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Carbon Footprint/Energy-Efficiency/Life Cycle Cost

The Agency is not yet tracking Carbon Footprint or requiring the tracking of carbon footprint on publicly-funded projects.

But part of reduction of carbon footprint is Energy-Efficiency. Not only does energy-efficiency reduce consumer costs and government subsidies, it can potentially reduce carbon footprint.

One step in connecting energy-efficiency with cost saving, beyond operations/maintenance is through Life Cycle Cost Analysis. RD is currently in the process of developing a new CNA that will take into account the cost savings of using energy-efficient and green building materials

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Life Cycle Cost Analysis

LCA is a decision-making tool that compares the owning and operating costs of building components and energy using systems. The analysis accounts for the initial cost of construction or renovating a facility, as well as the cost of owning and operating a facility over its useful life. These costs make up the total cost of ownership for a building.

LCA provides a method for the owner and the Agency to evaluate different building components and energy using system options and to select the most cost-effective ones. LCA assists in decision-making by recommending the alternatives that make the most economic sense while providing for the comfort, health, and the productivity of the building occupants.

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Life Cycle Cost Analysis and Capital Needs Assessments (CNAs)

Each MFH project is required to complete CNAs to utilize in creating reserve accounts over a 20 year period.

CNAs take into account the Estimated Useful Life (EUL) of building elements and include estimates for the timing and cost of replacement in the appropriate year of the 20 year cycle.

Rural Housing is in the process of redeveloping the current CNA to also include Life Cycle Cost Analysis comparison of products and building systems.

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Net Zero Energy Multi-family Housing

A goal of Rural Development is to support new construction that gets as close to net zero energy consumption as is possible from this point forward. A net-zero energy building is one that consumes no more energy than it produces through on-site renewable energy technologies.

Only possible for New Construction and Substantial Rehabilitation: Per RD Instruction 1924-A Guide 3: “All work directly involved in the rearrangement of interior space that involves alteration of load bearing partitions and columns; the replacement of the electrical, plumbing, heating or conveyance systems: and the addition to and/or major conversion of existing multi-family residential buildings or other building structures.”

See LEED and Green Communities for their definitions if participating in those

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What are the key elements of net zero energy building?

REDUCTION OF THE NEED FOR ENERGY THROUGH DESIGN

- Passive solar design

- Geothermal heating/cooling

- Insulation with high R values, installed correctly

- Tight building envelope

- Low energy consuming lighting

- Low energy consuming appliances & equipment

- Property managers trained in maintenance & operations

- Educated, motivated tenants

THEN…

- Renewable energy source (solar, wind, biomass, biofuel)

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LEED

For

Homes

Energy Star

For Homes

Builder’s Challenge

LEED

For

Homes

Energy Star

For Homes

Builder’s Challenge

NAHB

NGBS

ICC 700-2008

Green

Communities

NAHB

NGBS

ICC 700-2008

Green

Communities

Goal: Net Zero Energy

Enrollment in Programs (37 pts max.)

Energy Generation (30 pts max.)

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  • Energy Star For Homes (2pts)

  • Joint program EPA & DOE

  • 15% better than IECC 2004

  • - Typically 20-30% more energy-efficient than

  • standard house

http://www.energystar.gov/index.cfm?c=new_homes.hm_index

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  • Energy Star For Homes

  • Step 1: Builder Chooses to Partner

  • with ENERGY STAR

  • Step 2: Builder Works with the Rater to

  • select Appropriate Energy–Efficient

  • home Features

  • Step 3: Builder Constructs Home and Rater

  • verifies Features and Performance

  • Step 4: Rater Qualifies the Home as ENERGY

  • STAR and Issues an ENERGY STAR Label

http://www.energystar.gov/index.cfm?c=new_homes.hm_index

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Builder’s Challenge (6 pts)

- DOE program: “Promotes technological pathways toward Net Zero Energy for All Americans”

- Climate specific detailing: Has option packages

for different climates

- Energy Smart Home Scale (E-scale)

- Based on Home Energy Rating System (HERS) - by Residential Energy Services Network (RESNET)

www.http://www1.eere.energy.gov/buildings/challenge/about.html

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  • Builder’s Challenge Requirements

  • Project Documentation

  • Building Envelope Moisture Management

  • Space Conditioning (Manual J)

  • Energy Star Windows

  • Whole Building Mechanical Ventilation

  • Kitchen, Bathroom, Clothes Dryer Venting

  • Minimal Duct Leakage

  • Air Barrier/Insulation Integrity (Energy Star Thermal Bypass Inspection Checklist)

  • High Quality Air Filtration

  • Combustion Safety

  • Carbon Monoxide Alarms (Some)

  • Air Handler Isolated from Garage

  • Moisture Management Field Verification

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  • Builder’s Challenge Recommendations

  • Material Efficient Framing

  • Construction Waste Management

  • Space Conditioning Design (Manual D)

  • Space Conditioning System meets Air Conditioning Contractor’s of America (ACCA) specification

  • Carbon Monoxide Alarms (All)

  • Garage Exhaust Ventilation

  • Pressure Balancing

  • Low VOC interior coating

  • Low VOC adhesives

  • Low emission cabinets

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Builder’s Challenge

E-Scale

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  • Green Communities (5 pts)

  • Program of Enterprise Community Partners - formerly Enterprise Foundation

  • Cost effective, focus on affordable, multi-family housing BOTH NEW & REHAB

  • Grant funding for Charette and Post -Construction Operations & Maintenance Education through Enterprise Community Partners.

http://www.greencommunitiesonline.org/

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  • Green Communities

  • Earn a minimum of 35 points on checklist of criteria:

    • Integrated Design Site

    • Location and Neighborhood Fabric

    • Site Improvements

    • Water Conservation

    • Energy Efficiency

    • Materials Beneficial to the Environment

    • Healthy Living Environment

    • Operations and Maintenance

http://www.greencommunitiesonline.org/

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  • Green Communities

  • The Green Communities criteria are aligned

  • with LEED. The US Green Building Council,

  • through LEED, strongly supports the Green

  • Communities initiative. In addition, the Green

  • Communities criteria reflect and are

  • compatible with leading state and local green

  • building programs.

See the report entitled : Incremental Cost, Measurable Savings: Enterprise Green Communities Criteria – average additional cost is approx. 2.1% more than standard construction

http://www.greencommunitiesonline.org/

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  • LEED For Homes (11 pts max.)

  • Program of the U.S. Green Building Council

  • with 16 year old, proven program with international recognition

  • LEED programs for all types of commercial and residential buildings

  • Technically rigorous, comprehensive program focusing performance metrics that include: energy savings, water efficiency, CO2 emissions reduction, improved indoor environmental quality, and stewardship of resources and sensitivity to their impacts

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  • LEED For Homes

  • LEED points are awarded on a 100-point scale, and credits are weighted to reflect their potential environmental impacts. Additionally, 10 bonus credits are available, four of which address regionally specific environmental issues. A project must satisfy all prerequisites and earn a minimum number of points to be certified.

http://www.usgbc.org/homes

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  • LEED For Homes

  • Award levels: Certified, Silver, Gold, Platinum

  • All newly constructed GSA buildings are required to meet at least LEED Silver

  • Third party verification of a “Green Rater”, unique to LEED for Homes (required).

  • LEED Accredited Professional (LEED AP) person is important to keep project in-line according to LEED program. Additional point granted for LEED AP on the project.

http://www.usgbc.org/homes

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  • LEED For Homes

  • Emphasis on Integrated Design - Charette required, continual documentation through construction required

  • LEED for Homes Affordable Housing Grant by Home Depot Foundation to cover registration, verification, and certification fees

  • - Synergies with Energy Star for Homes (required), Builder’s Challenge, Green Communities

http://www.usgbc.org/homes

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  • National Association of Home Builders (NAHB) National Green Building Standard

  • ICC 7000 – 2008 (11 pts max)

  • Almost a carbon copy in terms of format, requirements and even certification levels.

http://www.nahbgreen.org/

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City, State and Local Government Programs (2 pts)

Some states and municipalities have developed their own green building and energy-efficiency standards. Projects that illustrate enrollment in any such program will receive an additional 2 points.

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Geothermal Heating & Cooling

Once there is a tight, healthy building envelope….

Next step to get to Net Zero Energy is to further reduce heating & cooling by

employing a geothermal heating/cooling system

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  • Geothermal Heating and Cooling

  • Geothermal heating and cooling uses the relatively constant temperature of the earth to heat and cool with 40% to 70% less energy than conventional systems. While conventional furnaces and boilers burn a fuel to generate heat, geothermal heat pumps use electricity to simply move heat from the earth into buildings, allowing much higher efficiencies. The most efficient fuel-burning heater can reach efficiencies around 95%, but a geothermal heat pump can move up to 4 units of heat for every unit of electricity needed to power the system, resulting in a practical equivalence of over 400% efficiency.

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Energy Generation Technologies (30 pts max)

With a tight building envelope, and a geothermal heating & cooling system in place, there is now less energy left to generate.

To get to Net Zero Energy, it’s time utilize renewable energy sources

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Energy Generation Technologies

On site Wind power is a viable,clean, renewable energy source for many parts of the country - typically wind must be approx. 10mph or more for optimal function. Northeast & Midwest have more than other areas.

Typical payback 6-15 years - then electricity it produces is virtually free after that.

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Energy Generation Technologies

On site Solar Power is a viable,clean, renewable energy source that can be used in most states, not just the sunny ones.

Consider solar shingles, solar metal roofing strips as well.

For more information see the Solar Energy Industries Association:

http://www.seia.org/cs/about_solar_energy

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Energy Generation Technologies

Biomass is also a viable,clean, renewable energy source that uses recently living organic matter to generate electricity.

Typically, for residential heating this would be a wood chip furnace or boiler.

For more information see National Renewable Energy Lab’s Website at:

http://www.nrel.gov/learning/re_biomass.html

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Energy Generation Technologies

Micro hydro power is another

Possibility; however, it is typically better for small projects. A site must have very specific features such as stream or river, and the topography that allows for a steep drop. It can, in some cases, be harmful to existing ecosystems.

For more information the following link for pros and cons:

http://www.alternative-energy-news.info/micro-hydro-power-pros-and-cons/

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Energy Generation Technologies

Net Metering: Tracking the excess energy produces and then utilizing that credit in times of the year when more energy is needed.

In recent years many states have enacted net metering laws legislatively. In most of the states with net metering statutes, all utilities are required to offer net metering for some wind systems, although many states limit eligibility to small systems.

For more detailed information see American Wind Energy Association website:

http://www.awea.org/faq/rsdntqa.html#Howdoresidentialwindturbineswork

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Who can help to make sure this is all done correctly?

- Technical Assistance Grant award to a Contractor specifically dedicated to work with grantees in assuring smooth, successful achievement of project goals. This contractor will be able to assist technically, and will also be documenting the process of all projects for the purpose of creating a report and a website portfolio.

- USGBC, DOE, EPA, Enterprise Community Partners, LEED AP

- Qualified Architects, Engineers, Builders with familiarity of programs

- State office architect and Green Team

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Thom Sakata, CO

Judy Moran, CA

Sara Loe, MO

Mark Ryan, MN

Jim Raznoff, MT

Brian Fletcher, VA

Kerry Elder, TX

Win Henderson, NJ

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Other Sources of Funding For Energy-Efficiency

http://www.dsireusa.org/- state resources

Federal Dept. of Energy Weatherization Program

McArthur Foundation

State Governor’s Energy Office

Weatherization Program Office

Individual Utility Companies

Federal Home Loan Banks

Community Action Agendas

State Finance Agencies

US Green Building Council

Enterprise Community Partners

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Energy Generation Technologies - Some Websites/Videos

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fsNocaPsvfE (wood chip furnace)

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ri4jDfq4wvQ (geothermal heating/cooling systems)

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SB0ZUsHkGGY (thin solar pv panels - flat roof)

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YYJe12X6T50 (thin film - sloped metal roof solar pv installation)

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5P8fOQ9V9mg (solar shingles)

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