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Unit 11

The Respiratory System


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Function

  • The respiratory system includes tubes that remove particles (filter) from incoming air and transport air into and out of the lungs.


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What is Respiration?

  • It is the entire process of gas exchange between atmosphere and body cells.

  • Lungs remove the oxygen from the air (21% of air is oxygen) and exchange it for carbon dioxide (waste product of cells).

http://totalcareprivado.blogspot.com/2010/08/respiratory-system.html


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What happens?

  • Movement of air in and out of lungs (breathing or ventilation)

  • Gas exchange between blood and air in lungs by diffusion (external respiration)

  • Gas transport between lungs and body cells

  • Gas exchange between blood and body cells (internal respiration)


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Organs

  • The respiratory system is divided into two groups (or tracts):

    • Upper respiratory:

      • nose, nasal cavity, paranasal sinuses, and pharynx

    • Lower respiratory:

      • larynx, trachea, bronchial tree and lungs


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Nose & naval cavity

  • Function of nose is to provide entrance from nostrils to nasal cavity where internal hairs help us to breathe, smell, and filter air that travels to our lung.

  • The function of the naval cavity is to conduct air to the pharynx, where mucous lining filters and moistens air. This mucous entraps dust and other small particles that enter with air.

http://health.allrefer.com/health/foreign-body-in-the-nose-nasal-anatomy.html


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Paranasal sinuses

  • Function of the paranasal sinuses are to reduce weight of skull and resonant chambers that affect quality to voice.

http://legacy.owensboro.kctcs.edu/gcaplan/anat2/notes/APIINotes4%20respiratory%20anatomy.htm


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Pharynx

  • Functions of the pharynx is to act as a passageway for food traveling from the oral cavity to the esophagus and for air passing between nasal cavity and larynx. It also helps to produce sounds of speech.

http://www.daviddarling.info/encyclopedia/P/pharynx.html


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Larynx

  • Function of larynx is to conduct air in and out of trachea, prevent foreign objects from entering trachea.

  • It is also were the vocal cords are located.

http://www.homebusinessandfamilylife.com/larynx.html


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Trachea

  • Trachea-filters incoming air, moves entrapped particles upward into the pharynx where mucous can be swallowed.

  • The trachea holds 20 ‘C’ shaped pieces of cartilage. These prevent the trachea form collapsing and blocking the airway.

http://www.webcalf.com/?p=323


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Bronchial Tree

  • The bronchial tree has airways branched from the trachea that lead to air sacs in the lungs. It starts with the primary bronchi, then it braches off into finer tubes called bronchioles.

  • Bronchioles continue to divide into thin tubes called alveolar ducts, which contain small clustered microscopic sacs called alveoli.

http://academic.kellogg.edu/herbrandsonc/bio201_mckinley/Respiratory%20System.htm


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Lungs

  • The right lung is larger than the left lung and is divided into 3 lobes. The left has 2 lobes.

  • Each lobe has connections to blood and lymphatic vessels. Lung includes air passages, alveoli, blood vessels, connective tissue, lymphatic vessels, and nerves.

http://e-oshare.biz/lungcancer-en/entry1.html


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Breathing

  • Inspiration occurs when pressure inside alveoli decreases and atmospheric pressure is greater.

  • Expiration is the result of elastic recoil of tissues and surface tension within alveoli (diaphragm does not control breathing).

  • The amount of air that enters or leaves the lungs is called the tidal volume.

http://musculartorysystem.blogspot.com/2011/01/inspiration-and-expiration.html


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Respiratory Diseases

  • Asthma

  • Atelectasis

  • Bronchitis

  • COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease)

  • Emphysema

  • Lung cancer

  • Pneumonia

  • Pulmonary edema


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Asthma

  • Asthma is an inflammatory disorder of the airways, which causes attacks of wheezing, shortness of breath, chest tightness, and coughing.

  • Asthma is caused by inflammation in the airways. When an asthma attack occurs, the muscles surrounding the airways become tight and the lining of the air passages swells. This reduces the amount of air that can pass by.

  • In sensitive people, asthma symptoms can be triggered by breathing in allergy-causing substances (called allergens or triggers).

  • Common asthma triggers include:

    • Animals (pet hair or dander)

    • Dust

    • Changes in weather (most often cold weather)

    • Chemicals in the air or in food

    • Exercise

    • Mold

    • Pollen

    • Respiratory infections, such as the common cold

    • Strong emotions (stress)

    • Tobacco smoke


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Atelectasis

  • Atelectasis is the collapse of part or (much less commonly) all of a lung.

  • Atelectasis is caused by a blockage of the air passages (bronchus or bronchioles) or by pressure on the outside of the lung.

  • It is common after surgery, or in patients who were in the hospital.

  • Risk factors for developing atelectasis include:

    • Anesthesia

    • Foreign object in the airway (most common in children)

    • Lung diseases

    • Mucus that plugs the airway

    • Pressure on the lung caused by a buildup of fluid between the ribs and the lungs (called a pleural effusion)

    • Prolonged bed rest with few changes in position

    • Shallow breathing (may be caused by painful breathing)

    • Tumors that block an airway


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Bronchitis

  • Bronchitis is inflammation of the main air passages to the lungs. Bronchitis may be short-lived (acute) or chronic, meaning that it lasts a long time and often recurs.

  • Acute bronchitis generally follows a viral respiratory infection. At first, it affects your nose, sinuses, and throat and then spreads to the lungs. Sometimes, you may get another (secondary) bacterial infection in the airways.This means that bacteria infect the airways, in addition to the virus.

  • People at risk for acute bronchitis include:

    • The elderly, infants, and young children

    • Persons with heart or lung disease

    • Smokers


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COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease)

  • Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is one of the most common lung diseases. It makes it difficult to breathe. There are two main forms of COPD:

    • Chronic bronchitis, defined by a long-term cough with mucus

    • Emphysema, defined by destruction of the lungs over time

  • Most people with COPD have a combination of both conditions.


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Emphysema

  • Emphysema occurs when the air sacs in your lungs are gradually destroyed, making you progressively more short of breath. Emphysema is one of several diseases known collectively as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Smoking is the leading cause of emphysema.


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Lung cancer

  • Although lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death in the U.S. in both men and women, it is also one of the most preventable kinds of cancer.

  • Lung cancer is a disease in which the cells of the lung tissues grow uncontrollably and form tumors.

  • Causes:

    • About 90% of lung cancers arise due to tobacco use.

    • Passive smoking, or secondhand smoke, presents another risk for lung cancer. An estimated 3,000 lung cancer deaths occur each year in the U.S. that are attributable to passive smoking.

    • Air pollution

    • Asbestos exposure increases the risk of lung cancer nine times. A combination of asbestos exposure and cigarette smoking raises the risk to as much as 50 times.

    • Lung diseases, such as tuberculosis (TB) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), also create a risk for lung cancer. A person with COPD has a four to six times greater risk of lung cancer even when the effect of cigarette smoking is excluded.

    • Radon exposure

    • Certain occupations where exposure to arsenic, chromium, nickel, aromatic hydrocarbons, and ethers occurs may increase the risk of lung cancer.


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Pneumonia

  • Pneumonia is a respiratory condition in which there is infection of the lung.

  • Pneumonia is a common illness that affects millions of people each year in the United States. Germs called bacteria, viruses, and fungi may cause pneumonia.

  • Ways you can get pneumonia include:

  • Bacteria and viruses living in your nose, sinuses, or mouth may spread to your lungs.

  • You may breathe some of these germs directly into your lungs.

  • You breathe in (inhale) food, liquids, vomit, or secretions from the mouth into your lungs (aspiration pneumonia)

  • The most common pneumonia-causing germ in adults is Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus).


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Pulmonary edema

  • Pulmonary edema is an abnormal build up of fluid in the air sacs of the lungs, which leads to shortness of breath

  • Causes:

    • Pulmonary edema is usually caused by heart failure. As the heart fails, pressure in the veins going through the lungs starts to rise.

    • As the pressure in these blood vessels increases, fluid is pushed into the air spaces (alveoli) in the lungs. This fluid interrupts normal oxygen movement through the lungs, resulting in shortness of breath.

    • Pulmonary edema may be caused by damage directly to the lung, such as that caused by poisonous gas or severe infection, as a side effect of medications, or the result of major trauma. Lung damage with a buildup of body fluid is also seen in kidney failure. Exercising at very high altitudes can also cause pulmonary edema

    • Pulmonary edema may also be a complication of a heart attack, leaking or narrowed heart valves (mitral or aortic valves), or any disease of the heart that results in weakening or stiffening of the heart muscle (cardiomyopathy).


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Presented By:

Katelyn Sheffield


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Cites

  • http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/000141.htm

  • http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmedhealth/PMH0002078/

  • http://www.emedicinehealth.com/lung_cancer/page2_em.htm#Lung%20Cancer%20Causes


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