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Chapter 1 & 2- Class Notes Rebellions of Upper & Lower Canada British North America Responsible Government. Life in Upper & Lower Canada 1815-1855. Geography of Upper and Lower Canada. Borders what is now New Brunswick; northeast area of United States; & Great lakes

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Life in Upper & Lower Canada 1815-1855

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Life in upper lower canada 1815 1855

Chapter 1 & 2- Class Notes

Rebellions of Upper & Lower Canada

British North America

Responsible Government

Life in Upper & Lower Canada 1815-1855


Geography of upper and lower canada

Geography of Upper and Lower Canada

  • Borders what is now New Brunswick; northeast area of United States; & Great lakes

  • Upper Canada- Southern Ontario

  • Lower Canada- Quebec and Newfoundland

  • Upper and Lower Canada both British Colonies

  • Lower Canada mainly French speaking “Canadiens”

  • Upper Canada mainly English speaking people


Map of upper lower canada

Map of Upper & Lower Canada


4 main groups in lower canada

4 Main Groups in Lower Canada:

  • Habitant: (French) tenant farmer; rent land; poor

  • Seigneur: (French) land owner; wealthy and powerful

  • Merchant: (English) business owner; fur & timber industry; wealthy and powerful

  • Professionals: (French & English) doctors, lawyers, etc.; middle class; seeking democracy


Louis joseph papineau

Louis-Joseph Papineau

  • Lower Canada wealthy seigneur and member of the Legislative Assembly

  • Had strong support of French land owning and political elite

  • Conservative- favored doing things traditional & slow way

  • Served as officer in militia by defending British North America from Americans during war of

    1812

  • Elected speaker of the Legislative Assembly

    of Lower Canada

  • Became leader of the PartiCanadien

    political party


Government in lower canada

Government in Lower Canada

  • Governor-British appointed

  • Legislative Council- English-speaking merchants and seigneurs; friends of Governor; appointed not elected; veto power

  • Legislative Assembly voted by citizens

  • Two political parties dominated- Chateau Clique, PartiCanadien (PartiPatriote)

  • Chateau Clique- Wealthy British and French who supported British rule

  • PartiCanadien- Wealthy and poor French- early separatists


Government in upper lower canada constitutional act 1791

Government in Upper & Lower Canada- Constitutional Act, 1791


Unrest in lower canada

Unrest in Lower Canada

  • British merchants wanted to increase taxes for canals, harbors and roads for merchant use- few roads were built to help farmers

  • Increased immigration from Great Britain began to threaten French culture and language

  • 1832, immigrant ship brought disease cholera, killed 5500

  • Legislative assembly(French-speaking) hard to make laws

  • 1836, crops failed, Canadians face starvation

  • 1837, economic depression, English merchants blamed


The armed rebellion in lower canada

The Armed Rebellion In Lower Canada

  • British Army versus Patriote Army (Rebels)

  • Began on November 23, 1837 at St. Denis; rebel victory

  • Rebels built a fortress at St. Charles to fight the British but lost there and later at Saint-Eustache – Baker's Farm – Lacolle – Odelltown & Beauharnois

  • Pappineau fled to U.S

  • After all the fighting 12 were hung 58 were sent to Australia and 12 hundred were set free.


Life in upper canada

Life in upper Canada

  • Pioneer homestead start from scratch and forced native inland

  • Most habitant were subsistence farmers meaning they only farm for their family

  • Life in towns was easier

  • Town were hubs

  • Town supplied a people with basic service

  • Transportation mostly walking


Government of upper canada

Government of upper Canada

  • Lieutenant(British appointed) highest ranking

  • Legislative and Executive Council 2nd highest

  • Executive and Legislative dominated government business and social life

  • Legislative assembly (Elected by voters) 3rd highest

  • Had little power law has to be approved by council and Lieutenant


Family compact

Family Compact

  • Small group of powerful people in upper Canada

  • As well as friends and supporters known as Tories

  • Didn’t want US government to be part of Canadian government

  • Defended tradition

  • Believed power should be in the hands of few capable people (themselves)

  • Believed Church of England should have power

  • Loyal to Great Britain


Who are the reformers and what did they oppose

Who are the reformers and what did they oppose?

  • Opposed the power of family compact

  • Wanted changes in government and society of upper Canada

  • Divided into moderate and radical groups.

  • Robert Gourlay- plan to bring people from Britain to farm in upper Canada

  • William Lyon Mackenzie - 1824, established “the colonial advocate” a newspaper that spoke out on land problems, power of family compact and question to who was a upper Canadian

  • Sir Francis Bond Head - Appointed Lieutenant - governor of Upper Canada in 1835, was Reformer for short period but rejected


Armed rebellion of upper canada

Armed Rebellion of Upper Canada

  • William Lyon Mackenzie turned people against government in Northern Toronto

  • Radicals wanted upper Canada like the American government

  • December 5 Mackenzie led 800 men down Yonge street in Toronto

  • In the United States Sir Francis bond head tried to raise an army to liberate upper Canada giving 120 hectares of land for whoever would join him

  • Caught for breaking legal neutrality between Canada and the US jail 11 months


Aftermath of the rebellion

Aftermath of the rebellion

  • Lower Canada became even worse than before the rebellion

  • Upper Canada afraid to speak out because moderate reformers were branded as rebels

  • Prime minister decided to send Lord Durham as governor general


Lord durham and his report

Lord Durham And his Report

  • John George Lambton (Lord Durham) sent to Quebec City as governor general.

  • Suggested solutions for rebellions in Upper and Lower Canada.

  • Wrote “report on Affairs of British Canada” also known as Durham report

  • Named “Radical Jack” in British House of Commons because of radical policies.

  • Upper and Lower Canada unite and become one colony, called United Province of Canada - would unite English speaking people, would give them majority in gov’t

  • New colony should have responsible government - Local powers handled by colony: Imperial powers written, Governor advised by Executive Council only.


The act of union 1841

The Act of Union, 1841

  • Aim: create single government, establish English as official language

  • Was first step toward Confederation

  • Canada was split as Canada West (Upper Canada) and Canada East (Lower Canada, Ontario)

  • In 1847, Lord Elgin became governor

  • Executive Council/Cabinet got most power and are responsible to Legislative Assembly

  • Many members formed political parties to achieve power.

  • Nova Scotia:1847, New Brunswick: 1854, Newfoundland:1855, Prince Edward Island: 1851. Received responsible gov’t in these years.


The act of union 18411

The Act of Union, 1841


The act of union 18412

The Act of Union, 1841


Life in upper lower canada 1815 1855

PLANTING THE SEED OF NATIONHOOD 1815-1855

Why were some events in Canada’s history key in allowing us to become a nation?


Life in upper lower canada 1815 1855

WHO OCCUPIED EACH COLONY IN UPPER & LOWER CANADA?

Lower Canada

  • Population increased from: 250 000 in 1806 to 717 000 in 1841

  • Very high birth rates among French speaking population

  • In addition British and American immigrants settled the eastern townships that had been set aside for English speaking farmers

    Upper Canada

  • Before 1812 loyalists settled upper Canada

  • After 1812 a wave of settlers from great Brittan took their place

  • Population Increased from: 71 000 in 1806 to 432 000 in 1841


Upper and lower canada

UPPER AND LOWER Canada

Life in Lower Canada

  • Male ruling society

  • 3 major groups- French Speaking Habitants, French Speaking Professional Men, and English Speaking Merchants

  • The French scared of Adapting to the English way of life

  • Merchants were newcomers of lower Canada

  • Wanted roads, and harbours-paid from government taxes

  • Professional Men well educated, wanted to

    lead the colonies

  • Saw British as cultural threat formed a

    party called “ particanadiens”


Life in upper lower canada 1815 1855

3 main groups:

French Speaking Habitants (Tenant Farmers) – Main Concern: Scarcity of Land, Poverty, Fear of English Speaking new comers

English Speaking Merchants (Rich, Powerful) – Main Concern: Infrastructure

French Speaking Professional Men (Newest “Group”) – Separate French/ Canadian nation

Life in Upper Canada

Daily Life in Upper Canada

More fields were cleared in Upper Canada

Villages began to grow in places that were not convenient for farmers

Kingston

Developed as a British military for lake Ontario

Was the largest and most important town in Upper Canada for many years

York

Queen’s rangers began clearing land to build a fort in 1793

In 1834, it was renamed Toronto


Life in upper lower canada 1815 1855

Services in the Towns

By the 1840’s cities were installing sewer systems

In the 1820’s and 1830’s started to establish volunteer fire departments

Transportation

Walking was often the safest and fastest way to get around

Unpaved streets in towns were unpaved streets turned to mud

Louis-Joseph Papineau

Strong supporter of the old French order in Lower Canada

Served as a officer in the military defending British North America during the war of 1812

Elected to be in the legislative assembly of Lower Canada in 1809

Leader of Parti Candien


Life in upper lower canada 1815 1855

GOVERNMENT OF UPPER AND LOWER CANADA

Government of Lower Canada

  • Established by Constitutional act in 1791

  • Power limited by governors and councils

  • Members of legislative councils were voted in for life

  • English concerns were usually different from French concerns

  • The group which the most power was Chateau Clique

  • Believed that power should be in hands of a few capable people

  • Wanted the Roman Catholic church to stay power

    Government of Upper Canada

  • In 1830 government remained the same as the constitutional act in 1791

  • Two political groups the Torries and the Reformers

  • Appointed Legislative council to Executive council

  • Elected the Legislative Assembly


Life in upper lower canada 1815 1855

THE UNREST IN LOWER CANADA

  • French and English speaking merchants wanted different things for lower Canada

  • Merchants wanted to improve roads, canals and harbours

  • Immigration caused problems

  • Chateau Clique was encouraging immigration from great Britain

  • In 1832 and immigrant ship brought a deadly disease, cholera

  • The disease 5500 victims


The armed rebellion in upper and lower canada

The armed Rebellion in Upper and Lower Canada

Lower Canada

  • An armed conflict between lower Canada and the British Colonial, power of that province

  • The political leader was Joseph Papinea

  • The Canadians were ready to fight on November 1837

  • British troops charged and the Rebellions lost

  • The largest battle was held at St. Eustach on December 14, 1837

  • The Rebel leader, Dr. J.Q. Chenier along with rebels died

  • The British robbed and burned their village

    Upper Canada

  • Rebellion against the British colonial government in 1837 and 1838

  • After the war of 1812 family compact owned most land “Crown Reserves” and “Protestant Clergy”

  • The lower Canada broke out in autumn 1837 Bond Head sent all British troops to help suppress it

  • Short Fight (less than 30 minutes) the battle finished and the rebel forces retreated

  • 1860’s former rebels compensated by the Canadian government


Family compact1

FAMILY COMPACT

  • Upper Canada has an elite called Family Compact

  • Was a small group of powerful people in the colony of upper Canada

  • Along with friends and supporters were know as Tories

  • Did not want Americans to be part of the government in Upper Canada

  • Defended tradition (The things that had always been done) and opposed change

  • Believed power should be in the hands of a few capable people (themselves)

  • Believed the church of England should be powerful in the colony

  • Were loyal to great Brittan and the British government

  • They had power to stop any laws passed by the legislative assembly

  • Most Family Compact members were British immigrants who arrived before the 1800’s


The reformers

THE REFORMERS

What did they oppose?

  • Opposed the power of the Family Compact

  • Wanted changes in government and society of Upper Canada

  • Divided into moderate and radical groups

  • Included some radicals who later became rebels

  • Robert Gurley (1778-1863) arrived in Upper Canada in 1817

  • His plan was to bring poor people to farm in New Britain

  • He sent a questionnaire famers to see hoe their progress was

  • He also asked them to name thing that prevented in their towns

  • He criticized Family Compact


Aftermath of the rebellion1

AFTERMATH OF THE REBELLION

  • Upper Canada was very short and disorganized

  • London government was concerned about Rebellion

  • Bond Head was recalled in 1837 he was replaced with Sir George Arthur

  • Lord Durham assigned to report grievances among the colonists and find a way to appease them

  • Lord Durham’s report led to the union of Upper and Lower Canada into the province of Canada in 1840


Lord durham s report

LORD DURHAM’S REPORT

Two Major recommendations in his report are:

  • The two colonies should become one called the United Province of Canada

  • The United Colony should have a responsible government

  • The British imperial powers(?) should be sent out in writing. All other legal power(?)

  • Would be handled by the colonies Executive council and would be advised

  • The governor stayed neutral but signed things by the executive council

  • The executive council was not picked from the government but was chosen by leaders of other groups (legislative assembly) this is called “Responsible government”

  • Members of the executive council would stay in the council if half of the legislative assembly supports them

    Personal Information

  • 1792-1840

  • Arrived in Quebec city as a governor general of British north America in 1838

  • Interested in education the poor


The act of union 18413

THE ACT OF UNION (1841)

  • Since the Rebellion wanted a better and responsible government British passed a law called the Act of Union

  • British government acted on one of Lord Durham’s recommendations

  • The act of union joined in Upper and Lower Canada as the united province

  • The two aims of the British were to control the two colonies of Canada into one and give the English people control of the newly named colony and to have a new colony with a responsible government

  • They also established English as the official language of government


Assignment

DO NOT ANSWER THEM YET!!

ASSIGNMENT

  • Copy down the following questions:

    • What was the Act of Union and how did it help to unite the Canada?

    • Who was Lord Durham? Why is he significant in Canadian History? How did his report help form the identity and culture of Canada?

    • Why was their unrest in Upper and Lower Canada? How did this unrest lead to the Rebellions of 1837-38?

    • What was the government in Upper Canada? What was the government in Lower Canada? Were they similar? Different? How so?


Rebellions upper and lower canada 1837 1838

Rebellionsupper and lower canada1837 & 1838

  • Key Events In Canadian HistoryWhich influenced The Nation We Have Today


Background to the issue

Background to the issue

  • Governance in the Colony

  • The Governors

  • Land Issue

  • Transportation Issue

  • Special Privileges for a few people


Governance in the colony

Governance in the Colony

  • Colony had elected Assembly representatives from each district

  • Made plans for colony needing approval of Governor & Councils

  • Executive & Legislative Councils appointed from ‘Upper Class’, & weren’t bound to follow wishes of the people

  • Real power was in the hand of the Governor & Councils, the people had no REAL influence


The governors

The Governors

  • British men appointed by English monarch

  • Unfamiliar with local issues & conditions

  • Depended on the advice of their councils

  • Usually United Empire Loyalists

  • They were wealthy & better educated so better able to govern ordinary people

  • Anglican (church) should have ‘position’


Land issues

Land Issues

  • Best land given to Family Compact/friends

  • Exec & Leg Councilors controlled 90% of land, not farmed, would sell for a profit

  • 1/7 of land went to Anglican Church, not other religions though (clergy reserves)

  • New settlers received only poor, uncleared farmland


Transportation issues

Transportation Issues

  • Farmers needed roads to get to/from markets

  • Most were impassable

  • Govt. collected taxes to build canals, mainly used to benefit merchants & Family Compact/friends

  • Farmers felt govt. did not grant land/$ to them for land/tools

  • Bankers & merchants grew rich…


Special privileges for a few

Special Privileges for a Few

  • Governor appointed all officials

    • Councils, judges, sheriffs, justice of peace

    • Coroners, customs officers, postal officials, immigration officers & Indian Affairs officials

  • As head of military he appointed 1500 officers

  • Made land grants & spent crown $ for pensions to friends

  • Good jobs to Family Compact & friends


Lower canada quebec

Lower Canada (Quebec)

  • Louis-Joseph Papineau led the Patriots against the governor & the Chateau Clique, & loss of land to growing Anglophone population

  • Cultural conflict between French & English Cdns.

  • Fr. dominated the Assembly, was controlled by the Br. Councils

  • Created the 92 Resolutions

  • Some wanted USA Republic system

  • Fall, 1837, armed revolt failed, vs. govt. & RC church, again in 1838

  • Papineau fled to USA, then France, returned & Pardoned in 1845


Upper canada ontario

William Lyon Mackenzie led the Reformers against the Family Compact

Did not support the Constitution Act of 1791

Believed in responsible govt.

Demanded 2 constitutional reforms

Elected Legislative Council

Executive council responsible to Assembly

Reformers were against

Clergy Reserves,

Land grants to the oligarchies,

Influence of the Church of England

Power of the Banks

Upper Canada (Ontario)


Life in upper lower canada 1815 1855

REBELLIONS OF

  • Upper Canada

  • William Lyon Mackenzie

  • The Reformers

  • Vs. Family Compact

  • Lower Canada

  • Louis Joseph Papineau

  • The Patriots

  • Vs. Chateau Clique

  • Protesting against the Oligarchies control

  • Desired a Responsible Government

  • Wanted less Church control

  • Assembly had to approve taxes or no collection would occur


Consequences of rebellion

Consequences of Rebellion

  • Rebellion Losses Bill

  • Led to the Durham Report of the 1840’s

  • French Assimilation into English Canada

  • Act of Union unites the ‘two’ Canadas

  • Achievement of Responsible Government

  • Led to Confederation in the 1860’s


Lord durham s report1

Lord Durham’s Report

  • Durham's Recommendations

    • to unite Upper and Lower Canada to make the French a minority

    • to assimilate or anglicize the French majority in Lower Canada

    • to grant responsible government

  • Consequences of Durham's Recommendations

    • Upper and Lower Canada were united in 1840

    • Responsible government was granted in 1848 leading to Confederation in 1867

    • Created the roots of today’s French ‘separatism’


Rebellions losses bill 1849

Rebellions Losses Bill 1849

  • Reformers controlled the Assembly, their bill

  • sought to compensate those in what had been Lower Canada for damages that resulted from the rebellions.

  • was controversial because the Tories objected that many of the claimants were former rebels who were against the Crown.

  • was well received by French Canadians, but British elements opposed it so strongly that they attacked Elgin and burned the parliament building down in Montreal


Confederation 1867

Confederation 1867

  • The Province of Canada, (Ontario & Quebec) New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, and Prince Edward Island.

  • A system based on British Parliament

  • Proposed limited central government balanced by provincial power.

  • Rejected the strict application of "rep by pop.“ the senate represented regions

  • Called for a two-chamber (bicameral) parliament, including a (appointed) senate and a (elected) house of commons.


Our thesis

Our Thesis

  • If in the position of the Reformers or Patriots, a reasonable citizen would support ‘no representation = no taxes’ since a true democracy must have the citizen’s power move up to the ‘elected’ govt. officials, not from appointed officials ‘down’ to the citizens.

  • If every ‘democracy’ ignored their citizens and gave special privileges to a few, rebellion and civil war would surely follow.

  • Given that the rebellions led to Confederation 1867, which spawned the nation we have today, the rebels did the right thing and definitely helped to create the model of democracy that Canada represents today.


Life in upper lower canada 1815 1855

REFERENCES

  • ec.europa.eu/education/img/flags/canada.gif

  • www.collectionscanada.ca/obj/h2/f1/nlc006838-v6.jpg

  • upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/4/45/Canada_upper_lower_map.PNG/800px-Canada_upper_lower_map.

  • PNGcanadawiki.org/images/d/d5/Simcoeuppercanada.jpg

  • www.cmhg.gc.ca/.../med/v2_c4_s17_ss04_01.jpg

  • www.rootsweb.com/~srgp/director/gleason.jpg

  • www.westminster.gov.uk/.../celebrating21.jpg

  • homepages.ius.edu/raastron/Pics/farmers.jpg

  • www.lbpsb.qc.ca/~history/m4u3l1.htm

  • www.freewebs.com/.../whatwaslowercanada.htm

  • www.joyceimages.com/images/Bank%20Royal%20Visit.JPG


Bibliography

Bibliography

  • Unknown author.TheCanadas. Retrieved May 30, 2007 from the internet:

    • http://www.answers.com/topic/the-canadas

  • Canada Revisited textbook-pages 130-174


Edited by

EDITED BY:

MANISHA

BASSAN 


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