Vce english language
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VCE English Language. Revision Outcome 1, Unit 1 The Nature and Functions of Language. Language. Write down in your books what you think language is. At what age do you think that children ‘know’ a language? Is language just vocabulary?. Metalanguage.

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VCE English Language

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VCE English Language

Revision Outcome 1, Unit 1

The Nature and Functions of Language


Language

  • Write down in your books what you think language is.

  • At what age do you think that children ‘know’ a language?

  • Is language just vocabulary?


Metalanguage

  • Write down a definition of metalanguage

  • What are the five subsystems which from the metalanguage in linguistics?


Subsystems


fnetiks nd fnolodgi

  • Phonetics – the study of the speech sounds of all human languages

  • Phonology – the study of the sound systems of language

  • Important to listen to the sounds that are made and represent them with symbols that more accurately reflect them


Morphology and Lexicology

  • Morphemes are the smallest unit of meaning

  • Can be free or bound

  • Free can stand alone

  • Bound must be attached to another morpheme

  • Prefix – attached to the front of a stem

  • Stem – stand alone morpheme


Morphemes (cont.)

  • Suffix – morpheme attached to the end of a stem

  • Inflectional morphemes – give grammatical information

  • Derivational morphemes – change the class of a word

  • Give two examples of each of these


Word Classes

  • Nouns – words that name things

  • Verbs – action or state of being words

  • Adjectives – describe nouns

  • Adverbs – describe the action of a verb

  • Prepositions – show how things are related

  • Conjunctions – join clauses

  • Pronouns – in place of nouns

  • Articles – The, A, An.


Syntax

  • The way we arrange words in a sentence

  • Subject – the person or thing the sentence is about

  • Predicate – what is said about the subject

  • Phrase – group of related words

  • Clause – group of related words containing a subject (noun) and predicate (verb)


Types of Clause

  • Independent – (or main) clauses can stand on their own in a sentence

  • Dependent – (or subordinate) clauses can’t stand on their own

  • Relative clause – a dependent clause that describes the noun it relates to. It is introduced with who, which, that and relates to the noun in the main clause


Clauses and sentences

  • Adverbial clauses – answer the questions how, when, where and why about the verb.

  • Compound sentences – tow or more simple sentences joined by a conjunction or separated by a comma, semi-colon or colon.

  • Complex sentences – main clause plus one or two subordinate clauses


Sentence Types

  • Declarative – state facts

  • Imperative – commands or orders

  • Exclamative – expression of strong emotion

  • Interrogative - questions


Semantics

  • Study of meaning in language

  • Connotation – associated meaning

  • Denotation – dictionary meaning


Discourse Analysis

  • Discourse – can be spoken or written; it is a connected series of utterances or sentences.

  • To study or examine a discourse to show the structure

    or essence


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