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VCE English Language. Revision Outcome 1, Unit 1 The Nature and Functions of Language. Language. Write down in your books what you think language is. At what age do you think that children ‘know’ a language? Is language just vocabulary?. Metalanguage.

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VCE English Language

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Vce english language

VCE English Language

Revision Outcome 1, Unit 1

The Nature and Functions of Language



  • Write down in your books what you think language is.

  • At what age do you think that children ‘know’ a language?

  • Is language just vocabulary?



  • Write down a definition of metalanguage

  • What are the five subsystems which from the metalanguage in linguistics?



F netiks nd f nolodgi

fnetiks nd fnolodgi

  • Phonetics – the study of the speech sounds of all human languages

  • Phonology – the study of the sound systems of language

  • Important to listen to the sounds that are made and represent them with symbols that more accurately reflect them

Morphology and lexicology

Morphology and Lexicology

  • Morphemes are the smallest unit of meaning

  • Can be free or bound

  • Free can stand alone

  • Bound must be attached to another morpheme

  • Prefix – attached to the front of a stem

  • Stem – stand alone morpheme

Morphemes cont

Morphemes (cont.)

  • Suffix – morpheme attached to the end of a stem

  • Inflectional morphemes – give grammatical information

  • Derivational morphemes – change the class of a word

  • Give two examples of each of these

Word classes

Word Classes

  • Nouns – words that name things

  • Verbs – action or state of being words

  • Adjectives – describe nouns

  • Adverbs – describe the action of a verb

  • Prepositions – show how things are related

  • Conjunctions – join clauses

  • Pronouns – in place of nouns

  • Articles – The, A, An.



  • The way we arrange words in a sentence

  • Subject – the person or thing the sentence is about

  • Predicate – what is said about the subject

  • Phrase – group of related words

  • Clause – group of related words containing a subject (noun) and predicate (verb)

Types of clause

Types of Clause

  • Independent – (or main) clauses can stand on their own in a sentence

  • Dependent – (or subordinate) clauses can’t stand on their own

  • Relative clause – a dependent clause that describes the noun it relates to. It is introduced with who, which, that and relates to the noun in the main clause

Clauses and sentences

Clauses and sentences

  • Adverbial clauses – answer the questions how, when, where and why about the verb.

  • Compound sentences – tow or more simple sentences joined by a conjunction or separated by a comma, semi-colon or colon.

  • Complex sentences – main clause plus one or two subordinate clauses

Sentence types

Sentence Types

  • Declarative – state facts

  • Imperative – commands or orders

  • Exclamative – expression of strong emotion

  • Interrogative - questions



  • Study of meaning in language

  • Connotation – associated meaning

  • Denotation – dictionary meaning

Discourse analysis

Discourse Analysis

  • Discourse – can be spoken or written; it is a connected series of utterances or sentences.

  • To study or examine a discourse to show the structure

    or essence

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