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Chapters 30-31: The Great Depression, World War II, and Decolonization. AP World History Mr. Bartula. The 1920s: Temporary Prosperity. Optimism and prosperity in the 1920s led many to hope that large scale conflict could be avoided.

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Chapters 30-31: The Great Depression, World War II, and Decolonization

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Chapters 30 31 the great depression world war ii and decolonization l.jpg

Chapters 30-31: The Great Depression, World War II, and Decolonization

AP World History

Mr. Bartula


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The 1920s: Temporary Prosperity

  • Optimism and prosperity in the 1920s led many to hope that large scale conflict could be avoided.

  • This hope ended abruptly in October, 1929, with the onset of the Great Depression.


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The Great Depression’s Causes

  • After effects of World War I

  • Overproduction

  • Tariffs and other trade barriers

  • Stock market crash

  • Bank failures in the US and other countries


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The Great Depression (1929-1941)


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The New York Stock Exchange in October, 1929


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Bank Failures


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The Dust Bowl


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Responses to the Great Depression

  • The enormous economic decline led many western governments to take greater control over their nation’s economies.

  • Many saw the Depression as evidence that democratic governments and capitalism were incapable of solving problems or meeting the needs of modern society.


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US reaction to the Depression

  • Under President Franklin D. Roosevelt the US enacted a reform program known as the New Deal.

  • The New Deal expanded government powers and regulated the US economy more closely than ever before.

  • Programs such as Social Security were designed to help Americans through the worst effects of the Great Depression and, it was hoped, prevent another.


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Western European Reactions

  • Social Democratic governments were elected in Scandinavia. They were socialist but democratic.

  • In England, the Labour Party took power

  • France’s government was led by the Popular Front, a mixture of socialist and moderate parties.

  • These governments attempted to help end the Depression by taking more power over their economies


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The Soviet Union

  • Because its economy was independent and did not depend on external trade, the Soviet Union had few economic troubles during the 1930s.

  • Joseph Stalin boasted that this demonstrated the superiority of socialism over capitalism, and some Westerners agreed.

  • Stalin’s Five Year Plans and focus on heavy industry and militarization made the Soviet Union a powerful force.


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Japan

  • Japan had fought on the Allied side during World War I, but was disappointed with its treatment by the other powers afterwards.

  • By the 1930s, military leaders or warlords had taken power.

  • Japan began to construct the Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere, promising “Asia for the Asiatics.”


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Germany

  • After World War I Germany’s economy was devastated, its territory shrunken, and its military force depleted.

  • Many Germans felt their country had been badly treated by the Treaty of Versailles, and were eager for revenge.

  • The Great Depression made Germany’s situation worse, and many Germans looked to new leadership.


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The German Mark


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The German Mark


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The “Stabbed-in-the-Back” Theory

Disgruntled German WWI veterans


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Adolf Hitler

  • Born 1889, Austria

  • Obsessed with German racial superiority

  • Anti-Semitic

  • World War I veteran, took leadership of the National Socialist German Workers’ Party (Nazi) in early 1920s

  • Attempted to seize power in 1923, but was imprisoned.

  • Wrote Mein Kampf

  • Appointed Chancellor after Nazis won the German elections in January, 1933.


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The Third Reich

  • By 1934 Hitler had taken total power and become Der Fuhrer, or “The Leader” of Germany

  • He began to remilitarize Germany in defiance of the Versailles Treaty.

  • Anti-Semitic Decrees first separated the Jews from the Germans, then began to limit their rights, eventually leading to the Holocaust.


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Nazi Propaganda


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Anti-Semitism


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The Road to World War II

  • Many point to the Japanese invasion of Manchuria in Northern China in 1931 as the true beginning of World War II.

  • During the 1930s, Mussolini’s Italy invaded and conquered Ethiopia, Japan continued to invade and conquer China, and Germany made aggressive moves towards war

  • The Spanish Civil War of 1936-1938 was another omen of greater conflicts to come.


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“Guernica” by Pablo Picasso


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Germany Invades the RhinelandMarch 7, 1936


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The Austrian Anschluss, 1938


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The Japanese Invasionof China, 1937


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The “Problem” of theSudetenland


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Appeasement: The Munich Agreement, 1938

British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain

Now we have “peace in our time!” Herr Hitler is a man we can do business with.


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Rome-Berlin Axis, 1939

The “Pact of Steel”


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The Nazi-SovietNon-Aggression Pact, 1939

Foreign Ministers von Ribbentrop & Molotov


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Poland Attacked: Sept. 1, 1939

Blitzkrieg [“Lightning War”]


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The “Phony War” Ends:Spring, 1940


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Rome-Berlin-Tokyo Axis:The Tripartite PactSeptember, 1940


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Lend-Lease


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Battle of Britain:The “Blitz”


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British Prime Minister Winston Churchill


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Operation Barbarossa:Hitler’s Biggest Mistake


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Pearl Harbor


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Pearl Harbor - Dec. 7, 1941

A date which will live in infamy!


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Pacific Theater of Operations


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Allied Counter-Offensive:“Island-Hopping”


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“Island-Hopping”: US Troops on Kwajalien Island


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Battle of Midway Island:June 4-6, 1942


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Axis Powers in 1942


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Battle of Stalingrad:Winter of 1942-1943


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The Italian Campaign [“Operation Torch”]:Europe’s “Soft Underbelly”

  • Allies plan assault on weakest Axis area - North Africa - Nov. 1942-May 1943

  • George S. Patton leads American troops

  • Germans trapped in Tunisia - surrender over 275,000 troops.


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D-Day (June 6, 1944)


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Normandy Landing (June 6, 1944)

German Prisoners

Higgins Landing Crafts


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The Liberation of Paris:August 25, 1944

De Gaulle in Triumph!


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The Battle of the Bulge:Hitler’s Last Offensive

Dec. 16, 1944toJan. 28, 1945


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US & Russian Soldiers Meet at the Elbe River: April 25, 1945


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Horrors of the Holocaust Exposed


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Horrors of the Holocaust Exposed

Entrance to Auschwitz

Crematoria at Majdanek


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Horrors of the Holocaust Exposed

Slave Labor at Buchenwald


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Horrors of the Holocaust Exposed

Mass Graves at Bergen-Belsen


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Hitler Commits Suicide April 30, 1945

Cyanide & Pistols

The Führer’s Bunker

Mr. & Mrs. Hitler


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V-E Day (May 8, 1945)

General Keitel


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Japanese Kamikaze Planes:The Scourge of the South Pacific

Kamikaze Pilots

Suicide Bombers


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US Marines on Mt. Suribachi,Iwo Jima [Feb. 19, 1945]


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The Manhattan Project:Los Alamos, NM

I am become death, the shatterer of worlds!

Major GeneralLesley R. Groves

Dr. Robert Oppenheimer


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Hiroshima – August 6, 1945

  • 70,000 killed immediately.

  • 48,000 buildings. destroyed.

  • 100,000s died of radiation poisoning & cancer later.


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Nagasaki – August 9, 1945

  • 40,000 killed immediately.

  • 60,000 injured.

  • 100,000s died ofradiation poisoning& cancer later.


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Japanese A-Bomb Survivors


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End of the War (September 2, 1945)


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V-J Day in Times Square,NYC


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The Bi-Polarization of Europe: The Beginning of the Cold War


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The Division of Germany:1945 - 1990


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The Creation of the U. N.


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The Emergence of Third World Nationalist Movements


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The De-Colonization of European Empires


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India Gains Independence

  • Between World Wars I and II, agitation for Indian independence increased.

  • Mohandas K. Gandhi continued to advocate satyagraha nonviolent noncooperation or passive resistance

  • During World War II the Indian National Congress led the “Quit India” movement

  • The Muslim League advocated cooperation with the British war effort.


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Jawaharlal Nehru: leader of Congress

1889 - 1964


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Mohammed Ali Jinnah: leader of the Muslim League

1876 - 1948


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Gandhi spinning cloth


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Gandhi and His Granddaughters, 1947


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Pre-Partition


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Last Viceroy of India

Lord and Lady Mountbatten


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Partition!


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Border problems


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Kashmir Crisis


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Jawarharlal Nehru

  • Ally of Gandhi.

  • 1st Prime Minister of India, 1947-1964.

  • Advocated Industrialization.

  • Promoted “Green Revolution”.

  • Mixed Economy.

  • Nonaligned Movement.


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Indira Gandhi

  • Nehru’s daughter.

  • Prime Minister of India, 1966-1984.

  • Continues Nehru’s policies.

  • Faced corruption charges & internal rebellion.

  • Assassinated in 1984.


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Indira Gandhi with sons Sanjay and Rajiv


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Rajiv Gandhi

  • Indira’s son.

  • Prime Minister of India, 1984-1989.

  • Some reform of economy and government.

  • Also faced rebellion.

  • Assassinated in 1991 while campaigning.


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Sonia, Rahul, and Priyanka Gandhi: The next generations


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Pakistan

  • Led briefly by Muhammad Ali Jinnah.

  • Prime Minister Ayub Khan.

  • Dangerous combination

    • Was not prepared to rule in 1948.

    • Strong Islamic fundamentalism.

    • Impoverished.

  • Pakistan divides in 1972

    • W. Pakistan = Pakistan

    • E. Pakistan = Bangladesh


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Benazir Bhutto

  • First Woman Prime Minister, 1988

    • Ousted in 1990, 1993 on corruption charges.

    • Assassinated Dec.27, 2007

  • Nawaz Sharif

    • Ousted three times.

    • Struggle between modernizers and fundamentalists.


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Gen. Pervez Musharaff

  • Coup d’etat.

  • Secular government against Islamic fundamentalists.

  • U.S. ally in the “War on Terror.”


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India-Pakistan Border Disputes


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1971 India-Pakistan War


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2002 Military Statistics


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2002 Nuclear Statistics


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Partners in the “War on Terror?”


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What title would you give this political cartoon?


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Decolonization in Africa and Asia

  • After World War II nationalist demands for independence increased in the colonies

  • Western nations were no longer strong enough to maintain control of their empires

  • Some European countries managed to end their empires peacefully. The Dutch pulled out of Indonesia in 1948. The British turned their Empire into the British Commonwealth of Nations

  • France struggled to maintain its empire and fought a series of conflicts in Algeria and Indochina before finally pulling out.

  • By the mid-1960s most of Africa was independent. The last European nation to give up its colonies was Portugal in 1980.


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The Four “Worlds”

  • First World: industrialized liberal democracies with market economies

  • Second World: dictatorships with Marxist command economies

  • Third World: non-aligned nations (post- Cold War: developing nations)

  • Fourth World: non-self-supporting nations dependent on the First and Second Worlds


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Non-Settler vs Settler Colonies: Patterns of Decolonization

  • Colonies which had few European settlers were allowed to gain independence quickly

  • Kwame Nkrumah practiced passive resistance and economic boycotts in Ghana.

  • By 1960 the British had pulled out and granted independence.


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Non-Settler vs Settler Colonies: Patterns of Decolonization

  • Kenya was a colony with a substantial population of British citizens. During the 1950s and early 1960s, Jomo Kenyatta led a guerrilla war style conflict against the British. The British called this the Mau Mau Rebelliion, the Kenyans refer to it as their war for independence.

  • In 1965 Britain pulled out of Kenya. Kenyatta became President, and Kenya has had fairly good racial relations since


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White Resistance to African Independence.

  • Rhodesia, ruled by a white minority, seceded from the Commonwealth in 1965 rather than accept majority rule.

  • In 1980, it returned to the Commonwealth, accepted majority rule, and became Zimbabwe.

  • Until the late 1990s, it also had good race relations

  • President Robert Mugabe has encouraged confiscation of white owned land and businesses and terrorism against white residents.


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White Resistance to African Independence.

  • South Africa’s apartheid regime remained in power until the early 1990s.

  • Brutal laws mandated racial segregation and other restrictions.

  • In 1994, Nelson Mandela, an anti-apartheid leader, was elected the first majority-rule President of South Africa.


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Problems of the new African nations

  • Lack of an infrastructure and middle class

  • Little or no industry and technology

  • Artificial borders dating from the colonial period, with no recognition of historic and cultural differences

  • Democratic governments were often overthrown and replaced with military dictatorships.

  • Neocolonialism meant continued economic dependence on the West


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Nigeria: Colonial borders creating conflict

  • Oil rich nation with large population

  • Former British colonial borders include many different hostile ethnic and tribal groups.

  • Religious differences: Muslim north, Christian south.

  • Worst conflict: Late 1960s, the Ibo tribe attempted to form separate nation of Biafra. This led to a two year long civil war.


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The Middle East after World War II

  • Most Arab nations became independent during or shortly after World War II

  • In 1948, the nation of Israel was established, supported by the United Nations, the United States, and the Soviet Union.

  • War broke out as Israel’s Arab neighbors attempted to destroy the new country. Israel defeated the Arabs and expanded its territory.

  • Palestinian refugees became an immediate and lasting problem


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Palestine Population in 1946


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U. N. Partition Plan of 1947


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Israel Becomes a Nation:May 14, 1948

Chaim Weizmann,1st President

David Ben-Gurion,1st Prime Minister


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War Begins!: May 15, 1948


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Arab Refugees, 1948

The Palestinian Diaspora begins!


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Armistice Sig n e d, 1949


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Israeli-Arab Conflicts Since 1948

  • 1956 Suez Crisis

  • 1967 Six Day War

  • 1973 Yom Kippur War

  • 1987-Present: Palestinian Intifada

  • Camp David Accord 1979

  • Oslo Agreement 1994


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